CIVIL ENGINEERING 25.04.1998                  

Q.1.- ( a ) Describe the various budget stages for review / modification of budget grants.     
         ( b ) Describe the various kinds of tender system for letting out works on contracts.   

Ans.- ( a ) Various budget stages for review / modification of budget grants-
              i.     August Review – This is one of the Budgetary reviewed stages. This is conducted in the month of August every year by all the spending units / executives to see that any modification are necessary in the allotments placed at the disposal at the beginning of the year.

             ii.      The second budgetary review is carried out at the time of submission of revised and Budget estimate. The revised estimates for the current year are shown on the basis of conclusions derived after this examination in respect of revenue expenditure.
            iii.     Modification Statements – Railway Administration are required to review the budgetary position even after the receipts of revised allotment and advise the position to Railway Board in regard to additional allotment required or surrenders to be made during the current year under each head of grant or appropriation. This is done through the submission of modification statements. First modification statement is sent to Board by 1st February and final modification statement is sent by 21 st February.

 ( b ) Kinds of tender –
1.    Open tender –
The system of invitation of tender by public advertisement in the most open public manner possible should be used as a general rule and must be adopted subject to certain exception.
Wide publicity may be given to the call of tenders by –
        i.Notices in railway offices.
       ii.Notices in other Government offices.
      iii.Advertisement in vernacular / Local newspapers.
       iv.Advertisement in national / international newspapers, if work is very important.
2.    Limited Tender –
It is considered not possible to call for open tenders. Limited tender has now been approved by the Board as a regular measure and works up to a limit of Rs.20 lakhs can be awarded on limited tender basis. Finance concurrence is not necessary in case contractors are borne on the approved list. However, if the limited tenders are proposed to be invited from contractors not borne on approved list, prior finance concurrence will be necessary.
Limited tenders are to be invited only when it is advantageous to the Railway. Further there is no restrictions on calling open tenders even if the cost of works is less than Rs.20 lakh.
3.    Single Tender –
In case of emergency, the tender can be invited from a single contract provided that he should be from approved list of contractor.
4.    Global Tender –
This system is adopted by Railway Board or the Government of India for purchases throughout the world. For this type of tenders the General Managers of Zonal Railways and the Administration under them have no power.

Q.2.- Write short notes on any Four of the following -                  
a)  Deposit works.                          
b)  Pink book.                                  
c)  Urgency Certificate.
d)  Supplementary estimate.
e)  Canons of financial properties.                                        
f)   Arbitration.                    
g)  Depreciation reserve Fund.
h)  Stock verification Sheets.   
 ( a ) Deposit Works.-
The term Deposit Work is applied to works of construction or repair the cost of which is met not out of Railway revenues but out of funds from non railway a source works carried out by the railway for other Government department municipalities and other local bodies and private firms and individuals are known as deposit works.
The cost of plans and estimated are required to be deposited by private persons and local bodied etc before the detailed plans and estimated are prepared charges at siding scales are recovered from these deposits if works are not subsequently carried out keeping in view the charges may be decided by the competent authority.

( b ) Pink Book  :-              
This shows the various sub heads under which the lum sum amount sanctioned by allotment is to be spent and this indicates the works for which the allotment of money is intended. These books are furnished to the Railways along with budget orders.
The Pink Books also show in the case of work costing over one lack each , total estimated cost of each work and railway administration are required to exercise control over expenditure not only against the allotment sanctioned for the year for each work but also against its total estimated cost as shown in Pink Book  for works costing less than one lack rupees each a lum sum is allotted to each Railway administrations in Pink Book.  

( c ) Urgency Certificate –
Ordinarily no work should be commended and no expenditure incurred available and the sanction of competent authority is obtained. Those rules however can not be strictly adhered to in certain cases –
        i.Works which are considered to be urgently necessary to safe guard life and property and repairs to damage caused by floods or accidents etc. to restore or maintain through communication.
       ii.Works not falling under above but considered urgently necessary by the GM to meet the immediate needs of traffic.
Commencement of such works is authorized by divisional Engineer. The divisional Engineer at after submits through usual channels a report to the competent authority. This report is called Urgency Certificate or Urgency report. This is prepared on a Standard Performa indicating –
1.    Justification.
2.    Approximate Cost.
3.    Duration of the Project.
4.    Time frame for submitting the detailed estimate.
A copy of same is sent to the account Officer.

( d ) Supplementary estimates –
If it is necessary to do any additional work, after an estimate is sanctioned or if any substantial changes are required to be made Supplementary estimates are made in a similar manner as the detailed estimate. The details of items should include only the extra amount of work needed to be executed.

( e ) Canones of financial Property –
In exercise of their financial powers the sanctioning authorities must pay regard to the following principles –
      i.    The expenditure should not prima facie be more than the occasion demands, and that every govt. servant should exercise the same vigilance in respect of the expenditure of his own money.
     ii.    No authority should exercise its powers of sanctioning expenditure to pass an order, which will directly, or indirectly be to its own advantage.
    iii.    Public money should not be utilized for benefit of a particular person or section of the community.
   iv.    The allowances such as travelling allowance sanctioned to staff should be so regulated that it should not become a source of earning of the recipient.
( f ) Arbitration -    
Referring of dispute for determination in a judicial manner by a person or persons other than in court of jurisdiction.
The matter can only be referred to the arbitration if there is provision in the contract agreement and disputes are settled as per Arbitration Act.
Contractor is supposed to submit his claims from time. On receipt of claims from the contractor pre arbitration meeting is held between Sr DEN / DEN, Sr DAO / DAO and the contractor to thrash out the claims. If there is any dispute the matter is referred to DRM. DRM will discuss the issue with all the three in a meeting and communicate his decision. If contractor is not satisfied he may apply to GM. In such cases counter statement is prepared by the Sr DEN / DEN it is vetted by Sr DAO / DAO and sent to head office with papers of pre arbitration meeting. If the value of claim is within 5 Lakhs one arbitrator is appointed, If the value is more than 5 Lakhs or  complicated nature two arbitrators are appointed. GM is declaring panel of three or more officers not connected with the case. Contractor is selecting one person and other is appointed by GM ensuring that one is from accounts department.

( g ) Depreciation Reserve Fund ( DRF ) -
Depreciation Reserve Fund is the fund specially reserved for replacement of assets. Once the assets are purchased from the capital money but after some years the assets become scrap and requires replacement. Every year the life of an asset is reduced and the value is also reduced which is credited to DRF. After scrapping the asset it is replaced by spending money from the DRF the cost is debited to this head and credited to capital.

( h ) Stock Verification Sheets  -
The proper custody and accountal of stores is the prime duty and function of an executive or the stockholder. To ensure this verification of stock is done either departmentally or by the Accounts stock verifier. The stock verification sheets are prepared giving the numerical balances of items as in the ledgers and actual stock. The verification between ledger balances and actual stock are clearly brought out. The verifier and the stockholder jointly sign these sheets.
One copy of the sheet is kept with the stock verifier and three copies are handed over to the stockholder. The stock holder is required to offer his explanation for variation and recon cite the discrepancies and submit the sheets in duplicate to the divisional office for scrutiny and acceptance. These sheets are then forwarded by divisional office along with their remark to the Accounts.
Clearance of out standing S.V. Sheets is closely watched by the department and also by accounts. At the time of handing over charge the stock holder is required to clear the out standing S.V. Sheets for any reason the same should be recorded in the handing over notes by the stock holder.

Q.3.- What are the different types of Engineering surveys under taken before construction of a new line/ Explain their scope and significance.                      

Ans.- Different types of Engineering surveys –
Reconnaissance Survey -
Rough and rapid survey with or with out instrument of one or more routs for a proposed line is called Reconnaissance Survey. Approximate heights and distances are collected using instruments such as prismatic compass,  hand level and range finder.
Preliminary survey –
A detailed instrumental examination of the rout or routes selected as a result of Reconnaissance Survey  in order to obtain a close estimate of the line is called preliminary survey. It includes compass traverse along one or more routes longitudinal and transverse levels are taken at required locations. Alignment need not be fully staked out with theodolite. Stone pillars or permanent mark are provided on ground.
Final Location Survey -
A final Location Survey is under taken on the completion of traffic survey to select the final rout of the line to be constructed, taking into consideration all the circumstances of the case including the probable expenses to ensure that alignment selected final is most economical. During the course of the survey the center line finally located should be marked out by pegs at every 30 meters. Survey is made in connection with all the bridges waterways curves and stations proposed to be built and their plans, sections and designs are also prepared. 

Q.4.- ( a ) Describe briefly the provisions of the Payment of Wages Act.         
         ( b ) Who is eligible to get PLB as per extant instructions?                      

Ans.- ( a ) The payment of wages Act 1936 –
This act makes provision for prompt payment of due wages to certain classes of persons employed in industrial establishments including Railway & Railway workshop whose wages do not exceed the limit as specified in the act. This also regulated deductions from wages of the persons governed by this act.

( b ) The scheme PLB is applicable to –
a)    All Railway employees other than Railway protection force.
b)    Casual Labour having temporary status and substitutes with not less than 120 days continuous service.
c)    Daily rated casual labour employed of projects having completed continuous service of 180 days.
P.L.B. shall be payable to all class III & IV staff.

Q.5.- Write short notes on any Three of the following -                           
a)  Hours of Employment Regulations.
b)  Compassionate appointment.
c)  Permanent Negotiating machinery.
d)  Staff benefit Fund.        
e)  Family Pension.
f)   Section 3 ( 3 ) of Official Language Act.
( a ) Hours of Employment Regulations -
Applicability - This rule is applicable to all the non gazetted Railway employee except those who are govern by Factory act, Shipping act and Mine Act also MRCL.
Object –
        i.To fix the duty hrs, and periodically rest.
       ii.To fix the time for handing over & taking over charge of duty.
      iii.To Classify the Railway employee according to the nature of job and responsibility of the post.
     iv.To ensure payment of overtime allowance for extra duty hours.
Provisions – As per the rule Railway employees are classified in for main categories-
( a ) Intensive       ( b ) Essentially intermittent.    ( c ) Excluded.       ( d ) Continuous.
Payment of overtime – For extra hours overtime @ 1½times of the ordinary wages per hour above roster hours up to statutory limits and 2 times of the ordinary wages per hour beyond statutory limit.

( b ) Compassionate Appointment –
An employee’s son / daughter / near relative may be appointed on compassionate grounds in relaxation of the recruitment rules to a group ‘D’ or Group ‘C’ post.
When an employee dies in service / extension of service but not during re-employment , leaving his family in immediate need of assistance, when there is no other earning member in the family.
Exception – In exceptional circumstances with the prior approval of the secretary of the ministry department concerned , the appointment on compassionate grounds of a son / daughter / near relative of a Government servant who dies in harness will be considered even when there is an earning member in the family of the deceased government servant.
When an employee is invalided before attaining the age of 55 years ( 57 years in case of group ‘D’ ) if the department is satisfied that the condition of the family is indigent and is in great distress.
This concession is admissible only to one dependant.

( c ) Permanent Negotiating Machinery (P N M)-
Two Federation of Union All Indian Railway men’s federation (AIRF) & National Federation of Indian Railway (NFIR) men have been recognized by Ministry of Railways. All the Railway units of the unions affiliated to these Federations have also been given recognition.   
With a view to maintain contact with the labour to resolve disputes & differences between labour & management & to maintain healthy industrial relations the Railway Board have set up Machinery to have a periodical dialogue with both the recognized Federations which is called PNM.
The machinery functions in three tiers as under: -
      i.     The Railway Level or Zonal Level :-
At this level meeting between the recognized unions and administration are held     at Divisional level/ workshop level and zonal level. The cases which are not decided at Divl. / workshop level are referred at zonal level. PNM meetings with each recognized union at Divl. Level is held once in two months, while at Head quarters level it is held once in a quarter.
      The Railway Board level :-
Matters connected with the revision of pay & allowances and other policy matters for bettering service conditions. Which are not decided at zonal level are taken up by the Federation for discussion at Board’s level in this forum. PNM meeting at Board’s level is held once in a quarter.
      The Tribunal level :-
Cases in which agreement is not reached between the Federation and the Railway Board and the matters are of sufficient importance are referred to an adhoc Railway Tribunal composed of representatives from the Railway Administration and Labour presided over by a neutral chairman.

( d ) Staff Benefit Fund -
This is a fund intended to afford certain kinds of amenities and benefits to non gazetted staff as well as to gazetted officers of the Railway over and the normal facilities offered by the Railway administration from out of Railway funds direct. This is managed by a committee in which the chairman is an officer not below the rank of a Deputy need of a department nominated by the General Manager one representative elected from the staff.

( e ) Family Pension –
With effect from 1.1.1964 this pension scheme has been started. In case a railway pensioner or a railway servant dies the family is entitled for monthly pension.
No condition in regard to the length of service, status of the employee is laid down for grant of family pension. But if the employee at the time of his retirement is not eligible for pension the question of family pension does not arise.
The pension is based on the last pay drawn and payable @ 30% of the last pay drawn subject to minimum of Rs.1275 p.m. plus D.A. admissible from time to time . This is called as relief.
No commutation of family pension is allowed.
If the family pensioner is employed she is not eligible for D.A. relief on her pension.
The pensioner may get family pension of his / her spouse.
Family pension is payable to –
  1. Widow or widower for life or till remarriage whichever earlier.
  2. Sons blow 25 years and not earning.
  3. Daughter below 25 years of age and not married and not earning.
  4. Physically handicapped child for life if not earning.
In case of dispute the settlement dues are paid on the basis of the succession certificate issued by the court of law.
In case of blind or mentally retarded son/daughter the family pension is payable through guardian appointed by the court.

( f ) Section 3 ( 3 ) of Official Language Act -
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Q.6.- ( a ) Enumerate major and minor penalties under the Railway Rules for discipline & Appeal.                                                                                                         
          ( b ) Describe in brief the procedure for imposing of a major penalty on a Railway Servant?                                                                                                    
Ans. –
( a ) Minor Penalties :-
              i.     Censure.
             ii.     Withholding of Promotions for a specified period.
            iii.     Recovery from pay of the whole or part of any pecuniary loss caused to the government or railway administration by negligence or breach of orders.
( a ) Withholding of Privilege Passes or PTO’s or both.
( b ) Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for period not exceeding 3 years. NC and not adversely affecting pension.
           iv.     Withholding of increments of pay for a specified Period ( NC / C )
Major Penalties :-
            v.     Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for a specified period ( NC / C ).
           vi.     Reduction to lower time scale of Pay, grade, post or service with or without further directions regarding conditions of restoration to the grade or post or service from which the railway servant was reduced and his seniority and pay on such restoration.
          vii.     Compulsory retirement.
         viii.     Removal from service.
           ix.     Dismissal from service.

( b ) Procedure to impose Major penalty –
The procedure for imposing a major penalty has been revised vide first amendment 1980.
The important charge are as given under –
    i.    The delinquent may be allowed such further time instead of 10 days as originally prescribed as the disciplinary authority may deem fit.
   ii.    On request from the delinquent copies of documents referred to in Annexure III to SF 5 are to be supplied to him if not supplied along with SF 5.
  iii.    In an consideration of reply to the charge sheet the disciplinary authority considers it appropriate to impose a minor penalty it will pass orders representation before imposition of a minor penalty.
  iv.    The enquiry officer will conduct enquiry within the maximum limit of 20 days of his appointment.
   v.    In case the delinquent fails to appear refuses or omits to plead on the specified date enquiry will be adjourned but not beyond 30 days recording on order to that effect this is to be done by Enquiry officer.
  vi.    The delinquent within the maximum limit of 20 days from the date of order vide item 5 above give a notice to the enquiry officer for production of additional documents which are in possession of the railway Administration. Indicating its relevance to the case he will not request disciplinary authority in the he self.
 vii.    On receipt of the notice vide item 6 above the enquiry officer will forward copies of the notice to all the authorities concerned is whose possession or custody the respective documents may be specifying time limit provided in the opinion of enquiry officer such documents are considered relevant.
viii.    On receipt of requisition vide item 7 above the authorities concerned may –
a)  Produce the documents before the enquiry officer within the time specified by enquiry officer.
b)  In from the enquiry officer that production of any of the documents or all the documents where it is considered by then as against the public interest or security of the state.
  ix.    The enquiry officer on receipt of communication from the authorities concerned will take suitable action.
   x.    The condition of not having more than two cases pending at the time of nomination as a defense counsel by the delinquent has been made applicable uniformly to a serving railway employee of the same Railway a retired employee from the same railway or and official of a recognized trade union.
  xi.    The nomination of one or more defense counsel is to be made by the delinquent within 20 days of the appointment of enquiry officer.
 xii.    The EO is not required to submitted to the disciplinary authority a copy of orders passed by the former in the regard to enquiry as provided for originally.

Q.7.-  Write short notes on any Five  of the following -               
a)  Under Reamed Piles.                  
b)  Water Cement Ratio.
c)  Afflux.     
d)  Early steel girders.
e)  Railway affecting Works.                    
f)   CMS.                         
g)  Cumulative frequency diagram for curves.
h)  Switch Expansion Joint.
i)    Lubrication of Rail joints.
j)    R.H. girder.

Ans.- ( a ) Under Reamed Piles –
Under Reamed Piles mainly used in shrinkable soils ( black cotton soils ) to over come the effect of differential settlement due to volumetric change in soil effected by seasonal variations. It can also be used for sandy and clayey soils. These are three type –
        i.Single under reamed piles.
       ii.Double under reamed piles.
     iii.Multiple under reamed piles.
The diameter of under reamed bulb is normally 2.5 times the pile diameter and spacing of bulb should not exceed 1.5 times of the bulb. The minimum diameter of piles should be 20 cm. The top most bulb should be at minimum depth of two times of the bulb diameter. Minimum spacing of piles should be two times the bulb diameter.

( b ) Water Cement Ratio –
The ratio of the volume of water to volume of cement used in concrete mix is termed as water cement ratio. As a result of experiments it is observed that for a given proportion of ingredients in a concrete mix, there is almost a fixed amount of water, which gives maximum strength of concrete. In case the water used is less, the resultant concrete will be comparatively dry, difficult to place in position and may pose problems in compaction. Moreover with less water complete setting of cement can not be ensured and hence the strength of concrete get reduced appreciably. On the other hand, in case the water is more it would result in formation of excessive voids and honey combing in the set concrete, there by reducing its density, strength and durability. Thus water cement ratio serves as a yard stick for obtaining concrete of desired strength. The lower the ratio, the greater is the strength of the mix. A rich mix of concrete gives higher strength than a lean mix, not because of more cement but it is on account of the fact that concrete can be used with a lower water cement ratio.

( c ) Afflux  
Afflux is the rise in the flood level of the river, up stream of a bridge, as a result of the obstruction to natural flow caused by the construction of the bridge. Afflux is normally measured as difference in water level between up stream and down stream of the bridge.
Afflux is calculated by following formula –
Molesworth’s formula –            V2
                                       ha =  ------     + 0.015  [ ( A/a )2  - 1 ]        
Where – ha = Afflux in meter. V = Velocity of approach in meter per second. A = Natural water way area at the site.  a = Contracted area in square meters.
( d ) Early steel girders –
There are a number of steel girders on Indian Railways fabricated before 1895. During those early times, the steel manufacturing technology was not fully developed and steel manufactured in those times contained excessive phosphorous. Concepts of quality control were apparently vague and steel used in the different parts of even the same bridge was found to have varying content of phosphorous. Higher phosphorous content makes the steel brittle and such girders can collapse suddenly because of brittle fracture.
Therefore, it is necessary to conduct detailed examination of such steel girders at an increased frequency with a careful and critical eye. It is also necessary to ascertain the chemical composition of steel.
Even steel which was manufactured between 1895 and 1905 should be treated as ‘suspect’ and inspected at an increased frequency.
 ( e ) Railway Affecting Tanks/ Works  
Where as per current practice the Public Works or Revenue Department forwards to the Divisional Engineer every year, their inspection reports on the condition of these tanks which are classified as Railway affecting, action should be taken as follows:–
(a) The Divisional Engineer should peruse the reports carefully and mark those tanks which he considers are not in satisfactory state of repair. He should then forward the reports to the Assistant Engineer with instructions that the tanks so marked should be inspected and reported on.
(b) The Assistant Engineer should inspect those tanks and report to the Divisional Engineer details of the action being taken by the Public Works or Revenue Department. The Divisional Engineer should prevail on the authorities concerned to carry out all necessary repairs before the ensuing monsoon.
(c) Copies of the inspection notes of ‘Railway Affecting’ tanks as received from the Public Works or Revenue Department with particulars of date of inspection and notes of action taken or proposed by him should be included in the Register of Railway
Affecting Works maintained by the Assistant Engineer.
Vigilance over Railway Affecting tanks during heavy rains –
(1) the Divisional Engineer and the Assistant Engineer should arrange with the local authorities/village headman in whose jurisdiction ‘Railway Affecting’ tanks are situated to watch them during periods of heavy rain and give timely intimation to the nearest Station Master, if there is likelihood of any tank failing. The Station Master will telephone/ telegraph reports received from village Headman to the Permanent Way Inspector, Assistant Engineer and Divisional Engineer.
(2) When the railway line is threatened, the Assistant Engineer and Permanent Way Inspector shall take adequate steps to ensure the safety of Railway property and staff and arrange patrolling of the line and or post watchmen with necessary equipment at the place or places threatened and advise the Divisional Engineer accordingly.
(3) All the Bridges which are likely to be affected by Railway affecting tanks or other storage works should be provided with a tablet on top of one of the parapets, with the letters RAW engraved on it, followed by an arrow mark pointing in the direction of the railway affecting storage work in question.
(4) If the bridge in whose catchment a Railway affecting tank is located is classified as a vulnerable location, stationary watchmen should be posted during monsoon.

( f ) CMS –
Cast manganese steel solid ( CMS ) crossing are improved versions of built up crossings. The average life of CMS crossing expected to be about four times than that of an ordinary built up crossings. In addition they are free from bolts as well as loose components which may work loose or wear under traffic and their use therefore helps in reducing maintenance costs especially in locations of heavy traffic density.
On account of limited availability of CMS crossing in the country their use have however been restricted for the time being for Group A routs and to such other lines of other routes, where traffic density is over 20 GMT. These should also be reserved for use on heavily worked lines in busy yards on all the Groups.
( g ) Cumulative frequency diagrams for curve Realignment –
For Group A and B routs the need for curve realignment should be decided by drawing cumulative frequency diagram  showing versine variation over theoretical versine. For Group A and B routs the versine variations as measured on 20 meter chord shall be limited to 4 mm and 5 mm respectively. Realignment should be taken up when the cumulative percentage of versines lying within these limits is less than 80.

( h ) Switch  & Expansion Joint ( SEJ ) –
Switch Expansion, Joint (SEJ) is an expansion joint installed at each end of LWR/CWR to permit expansion/contraction of the adjoining breathing lengths due to temperature variations.
The exact location of SEJ shall be fixed taking into account the location of various obligatory paints such as level crossings, girder bridges, points and crossings gradients, curves and insulated joints. SEJ with straight tongue and stock shall not be located on curves sharper than 0.5 degree (3500 m radius) as far as possible. SEJ shall not be located on transition of curves.
( I ) Lubrication of rail joint –
Lubrication of rail joints is one of the important items of permanent way works incidental to systematic track maintenance, the lubrication of joints is done for the following purpose –
To allow for free expansion of rails.
To reduce wear and tear on the fishing planes of rails and fish plates.
The lubrication of rail joints also called oiling and greasing of fishplates is done once a year for all the joints during the moderate season which does not have extremes of weather (both hot & cold ). Rainy season is also excluded for this purpose. The lubricant used is a paste of workable consistency made of plumbago Kerosine oil and black oil in the following proportion –
Plumbago ( Dry Graphite ) = 5 kg.
Kerosine oil ( IInd Quality ) = 3.5 Liter.
Black or Reclaimed oil = 2.75 Liter.
For 100 joints of 52 kg / 90R or for 125 joints of 75 R / 60 R
Some items only plumbago and kerosin oil is used in the ratio of 3 : 2 for lubrication of fishplates the black oil is however used for oiling of fish bolts and nuts.
( j ) R. H. Girder –
R.H. Girder are the box type built up duplicated girder. These are special girders ‘ Restricted Head way having over all depth 0.85 m. are used to relieve the existing bridge or its approaches. It would be observed that majority of the old culverts and bridge up to 12.2 m openings are arches and at the time of carrying in situ repairs to these arches under traffic, The severe restrictions of the clearance that could be made available for inserting these girders being merely equal to the cushion that has been provided above the crown of the arch and below the sleeper has to be 1.00 m. The length of R.H. Girder should be decided taking into consideration height of embankment , slope of exaction depth. R.H. Girder are normally available for span in the Central Railway 53’- 6’’, 44’ & 24’. Alternatively if some released girders are available these can also be used as service girders for temporary arrangements.
The following speed restriction should be imposed while using R.H.Girder.
        i.Non stop 16 Kmph if height of sleeper crib is up to 1.52 m.
       ii.Stop dead and 8 kmph if height of sleeper crib is above 1.52 m.
Q.8.- ( a ) What are the permitted locations for LWR/CWR?                  
         ( b ) Why LWR require distressing?                                                
         ( c ) What is breathing length?                                                       
         ( d ) What is a hot weather patrolling and when is it necessary?   
Ans.- ( a ) Permitted locations for LWR / CWR -               
Complete track renewals (primary) shall provide for LWR/CWR wherever permissible by the provisions. Also existing rails on permitted locations may be converted in to LWR/CWR, provided they meet the requirements.
New constructions/doublings/gauge conversions/retired alignment/permanent diversion shall be opened with LWR/CWR, wherever permissible.
In goods running lines, goods yards, reception yards and classification yards, rail joints may be welded to form LWR if the condition of all the components of track is generally sound and without any deficiency, subject to such relaxation as may be approved by Chief Engineer, in each specific case.
Alignment - LWR/CWR shall not be laid on' curves sharper than 440 meter radius both for BG and MG.
LWR/CWR may be continued through reverse curves not sharper than 875 meter radius. For reverse curves sharper than 1500 meter radius, shoulder ballast of 600 mm over a length of 100 meter on either side of the common point should be provided.
Gradients - The steepest permitted grade shall be l: 100.
( b ) Distressing require in LWR for the following -
1.        When the gap observed at SEJ -
a)       Differs beyond limits specified.  
b)       Exceeds the maximum designed gag of SEJ;
c)       When stock/tongue rail crosses the mean position.
2.        After special maintenance operations mentioned.  
            Special track maintenance in LWR/CWR includes following operations:
a)       Through fittings renewal
b)       Deep screening/mechanised cleaning of ballast
c)       Lowering / Lifting of track
d)       Major realignment of curves
e)       Sleeper renewal, other than casual renewals
f)        Rehabilitation of bridges and formation causing disturbance to track
3.        After restoration of track following an unusual occurrence mentioned.
            Unusual occurrences in LWR/CWR comprise of the following: -
a)       Rail fractures or replacement of defective rail/ glued, joint.
b)       Damage to SEJ/buffer rails.
c)       Buckling or tendency towards buckling.
d)       Factors causing disturbance to LWR/CWR such as accidents, breaches etc.
4.        If number of locations where temporary repairs have been done exceed three per km.
 ( c ) Breathing length of LWR –
Breathing Length is that length at each end of LWR/CWR, which is subjected to expansion/contraction on account: of temperature variations. Usual breathing lengths in BG for different types of track structures and for different temperature zones as laid down.  
( d ) Hot weather Patrolling -
Hot weather Patrolling is done for LWR and CWR tracks when the rail temperature reaches td + 200 C and above and td + 140 C for Central Railway.

Q.9.- ( a ) Enumerate the Pre-temping and Post-temping operations in a section under machine maintenance.                                                                         
         ( b ) What precautions will you take to obtain a good results for cast in situ weld? 
         ( c ) How will you utilize CMS 2000 for improving the running quality of your section?
( a ) Pre Tamping Operations-
i) Layout including spacing of sleepers as per relevant drawings shall be ensured.
ii) The nose of the crossing may get battered or worn or the sleepers below it may get warped or bent. In such cases, the crossing should be reconditioned or replaced and sleepers below the crossing should be attended.
iii) High points on the turn out and approaches should be determined and general lift should be decided. General lift of minimum 10 mm must be given.
Post Tamping Operations-
The Section Engineer (P. Way) shall pay attention to the following items:-
i) Checking and Tightening of loose fittings.
ii) Replacement of broken fittings.
iii) The ballast shall be dressed neatly. Proper consolidation of ballast between the sleeper shall be done.
iv) Final track parameters should be recorded with the help of recorders provided in the tamping machine.
(v) The fixtures like check rails removed during pre-tamping operation should be restored.

( b ) Precautions for obtain a good results for cast in situ weld –
            i.     Stray arching should be made on parent rail outside the weld.
           ii.     Arching should be made on copper blocks.
          iii.     The battering and hogging of the rails should be checked with one meter long straight edge.
          iv.     The battering should not exceed 1 mm while the hogging exclusive of bettering.
           v.     Kinks in the rail if any should be removed before welding.
          vi.     Any difference in width of the rail heads shall always be fully kept on non gauge side by correctly aligning the rail ends on the gauge side.
         vii.     Flam cutting of the run on and run off plate after foot welding should be done carefully so that the parent rail is not damaged.

( c ) Various Operation for Utilize CMS 2000 for improving the running quality-
            i.     First select depth. Correct depth is important to achieve good and listing quality.
           ii.     Speed of lowering tampering bank is decided with respect to the site condition.
          iii.     Squeezing pressure and tamping cycle counter is set.
          iv.     Squeezing time is to be selected judiciously and decides travel speed of machine.
           v.     In auto mode, sensors are provided.
          vi.     For alignment correction in transition length.
         vii.     The tamping bank is designed to vibrate the tynes at a predetermined frequency and amplitude also imparting a squeezing action.

Q.10.- In an embankment 3 m high, a culvert 1 x 3.0 m arch is in distressed condition and is required to be rebuild. Describe the phase of work,  illustrating by neat sketches. The depth of foundation existing is 1.2 m below the bed level.                                   

Ans.- R.H Girder 18 m. ,  Depth of Girder 0.85 m. , sleeper Crib 1.50 m. Height.
           Proposed Bridge 1 x 3.00 m. RCC Slab.  
           Space available  for Construction = ( Width of both pier at foundation = 2 x 2.00 ) + (Space between Both Aboutment = 3.00 – 2(0.25 +0.125 ) + ( 2 x Excavation slope 1 : 1 = 4.2 ) = 4.00 + 2.25 + 8.4  = 14.65  m.
Field survey has to be taken the extent of regarding decided and get done.
Arrangements to be made to get the RH girder 18.00 m. long for insertion of RH girder & CRS sanction to be obtained, DCN to be prepared for Phase working and published for sanctioning of block.      
Phase I – Unloading of RH Girder at site with two cranes under Block.
Phase II -Excavation the formation for sleeper Crib portion under traffic imposing speed restriction, supporting the Track with sand bags for passing the traffic.
Phase III – Take suitable block to insert the sleeper crib in proper position.
Phase IV – Start excavation for girder portion under traffic supporting the track by sand bags.
Phase V – Arrange Crane specified minimum two cranes of 15 T capacity take under block minimum 3 hrs. for insertion of RH girder and  Insert the RH Girder . Erect the speed restriction boards and imposed stop dead and proceed speed restriction.
Phase VI – Dismentale the Existing arch  bridge.
Phase VII – Construction new 1 / 3.00 m. RCC Slab Bridge.
Phase VIII – After curing is over arrange special 2 Cranes with 15 MT capacity for removing the RH Girder and place on the cess and Insert RCC slab. Remove the sleeper crib and fill up the gap and link the track. Relax / remove speed restrictions suitably.
Phase IX – Arrange crane special with BFRs and take suitable block for loading the RH girder.

Q.11.- ( a ) What precautions are required for achieving good quality in painting of steel girders?
           ( b ) Illustrate with sketches the following types of girders, and the locations for their adoption-                                                                   
1.   Deck Type Girders.
2.   Under Slung Girders.
3.   Through Type Girders.
4.   Semi Through Type Girders.
Ans.- ( a ) Precautions to be taken during Bridge painting : -
            i.     Paints from approved manufacturers only should be used.
           ii.     Special care should be taken to shift sleepers on girders or rail bearers to clean the seating very thoroughly before applying the paint.
          iii.     Paint should be mixed in small quantities sufficient to be consumed within 1 hour in the case of red lead paint and 5 days in the case of red oxide paint.
          iv.     While painting with red oxide paint, a little quantity of lamp black shall be added to the paint while doing the first coat to distinguish it from the second coat. Similarly, in the case of aluminium paint a little blue paint can be added, instead of lamp Black for 1st coat.
           v.     Paints should be used within the prescribed shelf life from the date of manufacture.
          vi.     Brush shall not be less than 5cm in width and should have good flexible bristles.
         vii.     Dust settled after scraping shall be cleaned before applying paint.
        viii.     Rags, waste cotton, cloth or similar articles should not be used for applying paint.
          ix.     The coat of paint applied shall be such that the prescribed dry film thickness is achieved by actual trial for the particular brand of paint.
           x.     Each coat of paint shall be left to dry till it sufficiently hardens before the subsequent coat is applied.
Ans.- ( b )
( 1 ) Deck Type Girders - These Span used for Span Varies from 9.20m. To 24.40m.
( 2 ) Under Slung Girders – These Span used for Span Varies from 30.5 m. & above and where water flow very such as Vio duct.
Ans.- ( 3 ) Through Type Girders - These Span used for Span Varies from 30.5 m. & above.
( 4 ) Semi Through Type Girders – These Span used for Span Varies from 9.20m. To 24.40m.

Q.12.- ( a ) Write short notes on any Three of the following -                    
                      i.        Direct maintenance of quarters.
                     ii.        Prestressed Concrete.        
                    iii.        Earth Work compaction at optimum moisture content.
                   iv.        Dumpy Level.                     
                    v.        Pressure Filter for drinking water supply.
           ( b ) Describe any type of foundation you would recommend for a double storied building in black cotton soil area. The depth of BC soil is up to 3.0 m. Data required if any may be assumed.                                                                              

Ans.- ( a ) ( I ) Direct maintenance of quarters -
Direct maintenance of quarters system in railway adopted before 01-04-1995. From 01-04-1995 Railway have implemented Directed Maintenance of Buildings system.
In Direct maintenance of quarters system one third Quarters in a year to be attended all repairs after inspection of quarters. For this system 50 to 60% of maintenance staff can be put into directed maintenance gang and the rest of the staff can be left for attending the day to day complaints. Directed system of maintenance would also increase the productivity of staff as follows apart from improving the worst maintained colonies in the section.

( ii ) Prestressed Concrete –
With the introduction of prestressing it has become possible to avoid the formation of cracks in tension concrete and to use high strength steel most economical.
The essence of prestressing a concrete member in the induction of sufficient compressive stress in concrete prior to the member being subjected to loads in the zones, which will be tensile when the loads are applied. Thus when the prestressed concrete member is subjected to external loads. The already induced compressive stress in concrete will neutralize the tensile stress developed in the member on loading. Hence the resultant stresses in concrete in tensile zone will be eliminated altogether or get reduced to a great extent. Thus in a prestressed concrete member the entire cross section of the member becomes effective for resisting bending and at the same time the danger of cracking when the member is loaded is minimized or even avoided.

( iii ) Earth Work compaction at optimum moisture content –
Compaction of a particular soil is affected by moisture content. In modern construction projects, heavy compaction machinery are deployed to provide compaction energy. Types of machinery required are decided based on type of soil to be compacted. The method of compaction is primarily of four types viz a viz. kneading compaction, static compaction, dynamic or impact compaction and vibratory compaction. Different type of action is effective in different type of soils such as for cohesive soils, Sheep foot rollers or pneumatic rollers provide the kneading action. Silty soil can be effectively compacted by Sheep foot roller/pneumatic roller or smooth wheel roller. For compacting sandy and gravelly soil, vibratory rollers are most effective. If granular soil have some fines both smooth wheeled and pneumatic rollers can be used.
Proper control of moisture content in soil is necessary for achieving desired density. Maximum density with minimum compacting effort can be achieved by compaction of soil near its OMC (Optimum Moisture Content). If natural moisture content of the soil is less than the OMC, calculated amount of water should be added with sprinkler attached to water tanker and mixed with soil by motor grader for uniform moisture content. When soil is too wet it is required to be dried by aeration to reach up to OMC.
Type of soil has a great influence on its compaction characteristics. Normally, heavy clays, clays and silts offer higher resistance to compaction, whereas, sandy soils and coarse grained or gravelly soils are amenable for easy compaction. Coarse-grained soils yield higher densities in comparison to clay. A well-graded soil can be compacted to higher density.
Suitable thickness of soil of each layer is necessary to achieve uniform compaction. Layer thickness depends upon type of soil involved and type of roller its weight and contact pressure of its drums. Normally, 200 – 300 mm layer thickness is optimum in the field for achieving homogenous compaction.
Density of soil will increase with the number of passes of roller but after optimum number of passes, further increase in density is insignificant for additional number of passes. For determination of optimum number of passes for given type of roller and optimum thickness of layer at a predetermined moisture content, a field trial for compaction is necessary.

( iv ) Dumpy Level –
The name dumpy level originated from fact that this level was much shorter and thicker ( dumpy ) than the wye level commonly used before the invention of the dumpy level.
The dumpy level is the most basic, compact and simple type of leveling instrument widely used for leveling work. Its basic parts are telescope, Eye piece, Level tube, Level base, Level screws and Object lens.
The dumpy level consists of a telescope fixed on a vertical spindle. The telescope tube and the vertical spindle are cast as one piece. The spindle revolves in the socket of the leveling head. The leveling head consists of two parallel plates held apart by three or four leveling screws.
The telescope of the dumpy level is generally of the internal focusing type. A sensitive level tube is fitted on the top of the telescope or on its one side.
The cross hairs of the diaphragm normally have a vertical line and a horizontal line. The line joining the point of intersection of the cross hairs and the optical center of the objective is called the line of sight or the line of collimation.

( v ) Pressure filters: -
These are just like small rapid sand filters placed in closed vessels. Water passed under pressure such filters are located in airtight vessels. Water from the sedimentation tanks is pumped into the filter by mean of pumps. The pressure varies from 3 to 7 kg pressure. Filters are classified as –
1)         Horizontal pressure filter.
2)         Vertical Pressure filter.
The diameter varies from 0.30 m to 2.75 m and height varies from 2 m to 2.5 m in case of vertical pressure filter. In case of horizontal pressure filters the diameter varies from 2 to 3 m and length up to 9 m. The rate of filtration is 6000 to 15000 Lit. / hr / m2 of filter area. The cleaning is done in a similar way as in case of rapid sand filter. In order to increase the rate of filtration air pressure is generally maintained on the water surface.
These are less efficient than rapid sand filters in removing turbidities and bacteria’s. The quality of water is not good. These are preferred for treating smaller quantities of water and are best suited for swimming pools, railway stations, private estates, individual industries etc.
Ans.- ( b )
Black cotton soils to over come the effect of differential settlement due to volumetric change in soil effected by seasonal variations.              
In the shrinkable soils for a double storied building Double under reamed piles foundation most suitable.                     
Under reamed Piles Foundation -
Under reamed Piles may be made with earth augers with minimum diameter of piles should be 20 cm. Minimum spacing of piles should be two times the bulb diameter. The under reamed bulb may be made under reaming tool. The diameter of under reamed bulb is normally 2.5 times the pile diameter and spacing of bulb should not exceed 1.5 times of the dai of bulb. The top most bulb should be at minimum depth of two times of the bulb diameter. The boring should first be made to the depth of top under reaming after this the bore should be further extended by auger to the full depth and the lower under reaming portion completed.
A concreting funnel is placed on the top of the bore hole. Reinforced cage is then lowered carefully so that it does not scratch the sides and cement concrete is poured in. Compaction can be done by roding with care to be taken to see that sides of the bore hole is not scratched. Piles cast soon after the bore hole is ready. The top reinforcement of the pile should be bent so as to form a junction with the plinth beam. In Plinth beam outer wall a shoe 7.5 cm thick should be provided.

Q.13.- Design and draw neat sketch of a septic tank for colony having 100 units of quarters. Indicate and design the arrangements for disposal of affulents, if there is no natural drainage such as a nallah or a river, nearby                                
Ans.- Working of ‘Septic tank’ - 
A septic tank is a masonry or concrete tank usually built under ground in which bacteria are specially cultured to hasten the put refection of the organic matter in sewage under controlled conditions. The bacteria are of the anaerobic type  those which flounce in the absence of air. The action of a septic tank is not to purify the solid organic matter in human excreta as is popularly and erroneously often believed but to liquefy it and incidentally to reduce its bulk.
Septic tank system is on a site disposal method which uses standard flushing. The septic tank acts as sedimentation cum digestion tank, Anaerobic digestion of the settled sludge occurs in its bottom zone.
Septic tank shall be air tight, the light and oxygen should be totally excluded. In order to create favorable atmosphere for anaerobic bacteria to develop the lighter part of the suspended matter in sewage floats on water colleted scum, the scum should not be disturbed for this purpose T out let and in let are provided. Scum board also may be provided at times to prevent scum being disturbed. Velocity of the sewage is reduced by allowing water to pass through opening at the bottom. The detention period of sewage is 10 to 12 hours.
Design for Size & shape of Septic Tank of 100 users –
Volume of sewage to be dealt – 100 x 0.086 = 8.60  M3 .
Depth to be provided – 2.10 m. ( Except free board  0.45 m. )
Plan of Tank = Volume / Depth = 8.60  / 2.10 = 4.10 m2.
Keeping length 3 times of a width, if B is the width then length ( L ) will be 3 B and Plan area =
 3 B2 = 4.10 m2.  , B = √ 4.10 / 3 = 1.17. Say 1.20 m. , Length of tank  L =  3 x 1.20 = 3.60 m.
Digestion chamber will be 1.20 x 1.20 m. , Areation Chamber will be 1.20 x 2.40 m.
Sludge chamber will be 1/3 of Volume of septic tank. Hence – 8.60  / 3 = 2.87 m3.
Depth of Sludge chamber = 2.10 + 0.45 = 2.55 m. ,
Plan area of Sludge chamber = 2.87 / 2.55 = 1.13 m2. 
Size of Sludge chamber - √ 1.13 = 1.06 m. say 1.10 m. Sludge chamber will be 1.10 x 1.10 m.
Hence Dimensions will be as follows -
Total depth of tank including space for accumulation of gases – 2.10 + 0.45 = 2.55 m.
Depth of Water ( H ) = 2.10 m.,   Length of Septic Tank = 3.60 m. including 1.20 m. Digestion Chamber and 2.40 m. Areation Chamber and Width of septic tank B = 1.20 m.
Size of Sludge Chamber – 1.10 x1.10 m. and depth of sludge chamber 2.55 + 0.45 = 3.00 m.
Disposal of affluent from the septic tank –
Supernatant liquid has to under go treatment in a soak pit / filter bed. Use of septic tank with out follow up treatment is not permitted, as the effluent from the septic tank is hazardous from the point of view of health and pollution, since it is usually not possible to provide sock pit / filter bed in built up. Affluent coming out from septic tank, is still foul in nature and needs further treatment in a soak pit / filter bed for further purification, before it is left to large body of water for dilution.

Q.14.- ( a ) What are the various categories of Over dimensional consignments ( ODCs )? Who can authorize their movement?                                                     
           ( b ) Give the following Schedule of dimensions for Broad Gauge section -
                      i.    Maximum spacing of bridge sleepers.
                     ii.    Maximum distance apart of trolly refugees on bridges.
                    iii.    Maximum gradient in station yards unless special safety devices are provided.
                   iv.    Minimum radius of curves.
                    v.    Minimum distance center to center of tracks.
                   vi.    Maximum distance of checkrail opposite nose of crossing.

Ans. – ( a ) Classification of ODCs-
Oversized consignments are classified into three classes -
  1. Class A – Permitted out of gauge loads or ODC. These loads which exceed the maximum moving dimensions but do not infringe any fixed structure on the rout by a net clearance of 150 mm and above and gross clearance of 225 mm and above.
  2. Class B – Exceptional out of gauge loads or ODC. Here the net clearance are not less than 75 mm but are less than 150 mm the gross clearance are not less than 225 mm.
  3. Class C – Extra ordinary out of gauge loads or ODC. Where the net clearance are less than 75 mm and gross clearance less than 150 mm.
Competent authority to Sanction the ODC –
A Class – STO in COPS Office.
B Class – DyCE in CE Office.
C Class – CRS.
Ans.- ( b )
Maximum spacing of bridge sleepers.
65 cm.
Maximum distance apart of trolly refugees on bridges
100 m.
Maximum gradient in station yards unless special safety devices are provided
1 in 400
Minimum radius of curves
175 m.
Minimum distance center to center of tracks.
4725 mm
Maximum distance of checkrail opposite nose of crossing.
48 mm

Q.15.- A Beam A B 10 meter long is simply supported at 2 m and 1 m from A and B respectively. The Beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 200 kg per meter and concentrated loads of 1500 kg and 2000 kg at A and B respectively.
            Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams and also calculate the maximum bending moment.                                                                                  
Taking moment about C -  
RD x 7 = ( 2000 x 8 ) + ( 200 x 8 x 4 ) – ( 1500 x 2 ) – ( 200 x 2 x 1 )
            = 16000 + 6400 – 3000 – 400 = 19000
RD  = 19000 / 7 = 2714.29 Kg.
RC = [ 2000 + 1500 + ( 200 x 10 ) – 2714.29 ] = 5500 – 2714.29 = 2785.71 Kg. 
Shear Force –
The shear force diagram is drawn in fig. And values are Tabulated hear
FA = + 1500 kg,         FC = +1500 + 400 – 2785.71 = + 1900 – 2785.71 = - 885.71 kg, 
FD = - 885.71 + ( 200 x 7 ) – 2714.29 = - 2200 kg.      FB = - 200 kg.
Bending Moment –
The Bending Moment Diagram is drawn in fig. And the values are tabulated hear
MA = 0 ,         MB = 0 ,      MC =  - ( 1500 x 2 ) – ( 200 x 2 x 1 ) = -3000 – 400 = 3400 kg.m.   
MD = - ( 2000 x 1 ) – ( 200 x 1 x 0.50 ) = -2000 –100 = - 2100 kg.m.
Maximum Bending Moment –
X / 885.71 = ( 7 – x ) / 514.29  , 514.29 x = ( 7 x 885.71 )  – 885.71 x ,
514.29 x + 885.71 x = 6199.97 ,  1400 x = 6199.97 ,   x = 6199.97 / 1400 = 4.43 m.
MM = -( 1500 x 6.43 ) + ( 2785.71 x 4.43 ) – ( 200 x 6.43 x 6.43 / 2 )
       = - 9645 + 12340.70 – 4134.49 = - 13779.49 + 12340.70 = + 1438.79 kg.m.

L.G.S. EXAMINATION – CIVIL ENGINEERING 23.05.1998                              

Q.1.- What are the various type of estimates prepared for railway works? Essence in 4-5 lines for each of them should be given.                              

Ans.- Various Types of Estimates-                        
                      i.    Approximate estimate.
                     ii.    Abstract estimate.
                    iii.    Detailed estimate.
                   iv.    Supplementary estimate.
                    v.    Revised estimate.
                   vi.    Project Abstract estimate.
                  vii.    Construction estimate.
                 viii.    Completion estimate.
Approximate estimate.
Approximate estimate are required for preliminary consideration of proposals. These should be submitted by Engineers when any proposal is received for remarks. These estimates are based on area of land / Plinth area of buildings / cubic contents of items / length of track / number of points & crossings.
Abstract estimate –
Abstract estimate are required to enable the competent authority to give administrative approval to the expenditure. These estimates give reasonably accurate data of the probable expenditure. These should contain a brief report and justification for the work, specification and funds required. It is prepared on form No E 702.
Detailed estimate –
Detailed estimates are required for works, in which each sub-work is shown separately. Cost of material, labour, stores and transport etc. are taken into account along with allocation of expenditure. Credits for released materials are also taken into account 5% of the total cost is added to the estimate as contingencies. A report on justification of work also accompanies the detailed estimate. It is prepared on form No E 704, E 705 & E706.
Supplementary estimates –
If it is necessary to do any additional work, after an estimate is sanctioned or if any substantial changes are required to be made Supplementary estimates are made in a similar manner as the detailed estimate. The details of items should include only the extra amount of work needed to be executed.
Revised estimates –
Revision of estimates is some times necessary if there is rise in rates of materials, cost of labour, alteration in design etc. If the rise in the cost of work is likely to be more than 10% or Rs. 10,000/- a revised estimates is required to be made. Revised estimates should be prepared in the same degree of detail as the original estimates. The reasons for exceed should clearly explained.
Project  Abstract  estimates –
The Project Abstract estimate of a construction project should be submitted for the approval of the Railway Board. This should also contain –
An abstract estimate of junction arrangements. A narrative report explaining the salient features and major items of expenditure. And Detailed estimates under several heads. It is prepared on form No E 553 & 554.
Construction estimates –
Detailed estimates of all works included in a project as a whole are collectively called ‘’ Construction estimates’’. It is prepared on form E553 & 554 is secure technical sanction after final location survey for a line for all works included in Project abstract estimate.
Completion estimates –
A Completion estimate is prepared in super session of construction estimate. Following particulars are included in the Completion estimates.
                      i.    Amount of sanctioned estimate.
                     ii.    Actual expenditure on all works up to the date of construction estimate.
                    iii.    Commitments on that date.
                   iv.    Anticipated further outlay.
                    v.    Total estimated cost and
                   vi.    Difference between the sanctioned estimate and the estimated cost.
It is prepared on form No E 713.

Q.2.- Write short notes on any Four of the following -                        
a)  On account Bills.
b)  Issue of Tool & Plants to the Contractor.
c)  Single Tender.
d)  MAS account.
e)  Draft Para.
f)   Material Modification.
g)  Consolidated Fund of India.          
h)  Late tender and delayed tender.                
Ans.- ( a ) On account Bills :- On account Bill  or running bill prepared on Form No. E 1337 is indicated for use in contract works only and not supplies . On account  payments before the completion of a work should be made through this form.

( b ) Issue of Tool & Plants to the Contractor –
Where tools , plants .patterns or other Railway property are lent to a contractor for the performance of his contract, the term of such loan should clearly be specified. In order to safeguard railway property adequately, it is desirable that in addition to providing that any damage or deterioration is made good, a provision should exist that the contractor is responsible for loss or destruction. Under the law of Bailment the contractor in the absence of any special contract is not responsible for loss, destruction or deterioration, if he has taken the amount of care that a man of ordinary prudence would under similar circumstances take of his goods.

( c ) Single Tender – In case of emergency, the tender can be invited from a single contract provided that he should be from approved list of contractor.

( d ) M.A.S. Accounts –
This stands for material at site account. This is a suspense head of account that is maintained to watch actual consumption of materials obtained for specific work such materials stores are requisitioned separately by the executive officer and consigned to the site of work. The monitory value of materials consumed is debited to the work concerned through works Register. The balance under this suspense represents materials on hand yet to be consumed.

( e ) Draft Para
Draft Para is a Para proposed by a chief Auditor for inclusion in the Railway Audit report in connection with a serious irregularity coming to notice in the course of audit activities. This is prepared in five copies and will be forwarded to by name GM, HOD, FA&CAO, Director ( finance ), Rly Board. This will be replied in eight weeks, five weeks by GM & Three weeks by Rly Board.

( f ) Material modification :-
No material modification in a work or scheme as sanctioned should be permitted or under taken with out the prior approval of the authority who sanctioned the estimate . In the case of estimates sanctioned by the Railway Board or higher authority instances of will be considered to be a material modifications of a sanctioned project or work are given in below –
The following may be taken as material modifications on the lines under construction and open line works estimated to cost rupees one crore and over .
            i.     Any change in the alignment likely to affect the facilities offered to the public in the neighborhood or likely to increase or decrease the length of the line by over one kilometer.
           ii.     Introduction of any new station or omission of any station.
          iii.     Any alteration in the type or number of engines or vehicles provided in an estimate for rolling stock.
          iv.     A change in the layout of a yard affecting the general method of working or increasing or deducting the number of trains that can be dealt with.
           v.     Any departure from the standards of  construction as accepted by the railway board in the Abstract estimate or use of any second new material.
          vi.     The introduction or omission of any work or facility involving a sum of Rs. 5 Laces and over.
         vii.     Any modification of a sub work provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an additional out lay on that sub work of more than Rs. 5 laces.
        viii.     The introduction of any new sub work not provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an out lay of more than Rs. 5 laces.
          ix.     Any alteration in the standards of inter locks.

( g ) Consolidated fund –
As per provisions of constitution the central government and each state Government have separate funds of their own entitled the Consolidated fund of the India and Consolidated fund of state respectively into which all revenue received by the Govt. loans or ways and means advances and moneys received by the Govt. in repayment of loans are credited and from which the expenditure of the Govt. is meet when so authorised by the President or Parliament in respect of central Govt or the governor or the legislative Assembly of the State Govt in the case of State Govt. This is controlled by Parliament to withdraw money under article No. 266 ( a ).      From this fund vote of Parliament is necessary.

( h ) Late tender and delayed tender -
Late Tenders – Are the tenders received after the opening of tenders such tenders should not be considered. However GM in consultation with FA and CAO may accept such tenders in exceptional cases where GM is satisfied that such decision is necessary in absence of adequate competition.
Delayed tenders – Are the tender which are received after the notified closing time but before the schedule time of opening of the tenders. Such tenders should not be considered. However in special circumstances if response through others tenders received in time is not adequate and it is established that delayed tender is benefited in the sense that no undue advantage will occur through such consideration delayed  tenders can be considered in consultation with Accounts department.

Q.3.- ( a ) What is meant by standard Schedules of Rates and Non- Schedules rates.  
         ( b ) What is the procedure for finalizing Limited Tenders.                                  

Ans.- ( a ) Standard Schedules of Rates and Non- Schedules rates -
Standard Schedules of Rates –
The standard rates several item of Engineering works on a particular section of a specified date giving the specifications are classified and tabulated in the book, what is called standard schedule of rates of master schedule of rates based on the costs of material labour transportation taxes etc. The value of each work is calculated by rate analysis. The MSR / SSR there after forms the basis on which the rates of works are determined at any point of time for evaluating tenders and cost of works by contract. The schedule is periodically efforts are being made to computerize these items.
Non-Scheduled Rates-
The practice of calling item wise rates to be quoted by the tenderer should be avoided as for as possible. It is however observed that large number of non-scheduled items is being operated for various types of works. Absence of a suitable item in the master schedule is cited as the main reason for adopting non-scheduled items.
It is further noticed that proper care and attention is not being given to the operation of NS items in respect of description, specifications, mode of measurements, rate etc. causing ambiguity and vagueness in NS items which, at times, may result in over payment to the contractors.
With a view to safeguarding against the above inadequacies, it has been decided that introduction of NS items.   

( b ) Procedure for inviting / finalizing limited tender -
The procedure for inviting limited tender has now been approved by the Board as a regular measure and works up to a limit of Rs.20 lakhs can be awarded on limited tender basis. This will apply to construction projects also. Finance concurrence is not necessary in case contractors are borne on the approved list.
However, if the limited tenders are proposed to be invited from contractors not borne on approved list, prior finance concurrence will be necessary. Such concurrence shall be taken at FA & CAO's level irrespective of the value of work and the proposal shall be approved by A.G.M. same procedure shall apply even if one of the contractors is outside the approved list. In such cases minimum number of contractors are not specified but it should be ensured that opportunity is given to all the persons who are capable of doing such work and available in that area.
While exercising powers mentioned above, the following conditions should be fulfilled:
The minimum numbers of contractors to be borne on the approved list should not be less than 10,
In the event of insufficient response to the tender from the contractors borne on the approved list,
Limited tenders may be invited from the entire contractor list and not restricted to 10.
Tender notice should be sent to all the contractors borne on the approved list by Registered post or under certificate of posting and their clear acknowledgement obtained.

Q.4.- ( a ) When is a  Railway Employee Required to be placed under suspension?
         ( b ) How is the classification of gate – keepers of an engineering gate done? In which of the categories can a gate – keeper fall ?                                                 

Ans.- ( a ) Railway  employee required to be placed under suspension -
Railway servant shall be required  to have been suspended by an order of competent authority in the following cases. The information to this effect should be conveyed to the employee on ( Standard Form No. 2 )
      i.        With effect from the date of his detention, if he is detained in custody whether on criminal charge or other wise for a period exceeding 48 hours.
     ii.        With effect from the date of his conviction if in the event of a conviction for an offence, he is sentenced to term of imprisonment exceeding 48 hours.
( b ) Classification of gate – keepers - 
As per Hours of Employment regulation 1931 Gate – keepers classified under Categories of Essentially intermittence. In this Categories the staff whose duties are of an intermittence nature such as Waiting Room bearers, Gateman, Safaiwala, Saloon attendant etc.
Under Categories of Essentially intermittence Statutory Limits, Rostered limit , Shift duty, Weekly rest are as under –
Statutory Limits – 75 hrs per week.
Rostered limit -  72 hrs per week.
Shift duty – 12 hrs.
Weekly rest – 24 consecutive hrs.

Q.5.- Write short notes on any Three of the following -                        
a)  Factory Act.
b)  Permanent Disability Leave.
c)  Corporate Enterprise Group.
d)  Workmen’s compensation Act.
e)  Trade Test.
f)   Family Pension.
 ( a ) Factory Act –
Factory Act was introduced 1-4-49 to cover the labour employed in factories. It regulates the various obligations that an employer has to fulfill in regards to health, safety, medical care and welfare of the workers working in a factory. The act also regulates the hours of works, minimum periods of rest and leave and makes provision of extra wages in case of their employment beyond the prescribed duty hours.
Railway workshops and production units are covered by this act, but it does not extend to Loco sheds and Carriage and Wagon Depots.

( b ) Permanent Disability Leave –
The competent authority may be grant Permanent Disability Leave  to Railway servant whether temporary or permanent who is disabled by injury intentionally inflicted or caused in or in consequence of due performance of his official duty or in consequence of his official position.
The period of leave shall be such as is certified by the Authorised Medical Attendant of Railway servant to be necessary and shall in no case exceed 24 months in respect of one disability and will be counted as duty. This leave may be combined with leave of any kind.

( c ) Corporate Enterprise group:-
In order to have better and systematic participation of labour in management for improvement in working of Railway system and appropriate changes for improving efficiency and viability a Corporate Enterprise Group was set up at central level in ministry of railways in the year 1972.
This group consists of chairman members and secretary of Railway Board on one hand and on the other hand three representatives each of the NFIR and AIRF and one representative of the officer’s federation.
The Board objectives of the corporate Enterprise Group are to –
            i.     Evaluate functioning of the Railways and exchange data ideas on ways and means for improving the efficiency and viability of the enterprise.
           ii.     Appraise the investment programme, particularly in regard to housing and welfare service.
          iii.     Identify areas and devise action-oriented methods for maximizing organizational effectiveness the use of technology and towards building up the image of the railways as a service organization.
Staff matters including those which come within the purview of the PNM & JCM are not to be discussed by the Corporate Enterprise Group.

( d ) The workmen’s compensation Act 1923 –
This act provides for the payment by certain classes of employers to their workman of compensation, as per schedules prescribed for injury owing to accident arising out of and in the hours of employment as a result of which a workman may have died or becomes disabled for a period of more than 3 days. It also makes provision for compensation for contracting any occupational disease peculiar to the employment. The contracting where of being deemed to be an injury by accident.

( e ) Trade Test  -
With a view of perform the work in a trade an artisan staff should have the skill required for the trade and for this Railway workers classifications Tribunal in 1948 emphasized that the fairest and the best means of classifying the artisans in skilled and semi skilled in each trade should be through the trade test method.
The trade tests will be arranged by an Assistant officer of the branch concerned. The results of Trade test  should be supervised by an official not below the rank of IOW in charge.
The trade test result with the recommendations of the trade testing officer will be placed through the senior scale office of the branch concerned officer of deputy’s rank who are competent to approve of the trade test Assessments.

( f ) Family Pension -  See on page 6

Q.6.- What are the various types of leave that an AEN can possibly get ? What are their respective entitlement/ which of these can be carried forward to the next year? What is the maximum limit to which the same can be accumulated?               

Ans.- Various types of leave that an AXEN / ADEN can possibly get as indicated below –

              i.     Earned Leave ( APL ) – Thirty days Earned Leave is credited to one’s leave account every year 15 days on 1st Jan. and 15 days on 1st July. Maximum leave that can be accumulated at any time is 300 days. Encashment of un utilized leave up to 300 days is permissible on retirement / death of an employee.
             ii.     Leave on Half Pay – It is earned at the rate of 20 days for each calendar year . Leave on Half pay can be converted in to full pay on medical grounds and also for approved course of study. The leave converted is called Commuted Leave. In case of grant of Commuted Leave twice the amount of such leave is debited against the half pay leave due. Half pay leave credited in 10 days on 1st Jan and 10 days on 1st July on every year. Encashment not permissible.
            iii.     Maternity Leave – It may be granted to female Railway employees for a period of 135 days on full pay provided they do not have more than one child. This is also admissible in case of abortion / miscarriage to the extent of 45 days in the entire service.
           iv.     Paternity Leave – A male Railway servant with less than two living children may be granted Paternity Leave for a period of 15 days during the confinement of his wife.
            v.     Study Leave – Study Leave up to a maximum period 24 months in the entire service may be granted to a Railway servant for undergoing a special course consisting of higher studies or specialized training in a professional or technical subject having a direct and close connection with the sphere of his duties or being capable of widening his mind and improving his ability as a railway servant.
           vi.     Casual Leave – casual leave is not a recognized form of leave. It can not be combined  with any other kind of leave. Holidays, Sundays falling within the spell of casual leave do not count as casual leave. The staff who are not permitted to enjoy all holidays are entitled to 11 days casual leave. Casual leave if not availed during a calendar year will lapse.

Q.7.-  Write short notes on any Five  of the following -               
                i.        Chamfering of Rail holes.    
               ii.        Cant Deficiency.
              iii.        UNIMAT      
             iv.        Off Track Tampers. 
              v.        Oiling and Greasing of Girder Bridges.
             vi.        Workability of Concrete.
            vii.        Cover in RCC.       
           viii.        Buffer Rails.
             ix.        Submerged Arc Welding.
Ans.- ( I ) Chamfering of rail / Bolt holes –
Chamfering of rail holes has been done for the life of rail hole is increased and chances of the rail hole developing any crack is eliminated.
To operate the equipment chamfering bits are fixed on either side of the hole of the rail with the help of bolt and packing pieces. The torque is set on the torque wrench to a valve of 370 Lbs ft for 52 kg rails. The nut is then tightened progressively till the designed torque is reached and the torque wrench slips. The nut bolt arrangement is then unscrewed and the equipment is back in normal position.
The manufacturer claim that time taken for chamfering the hole is only about 1½ minute.

( ii ) Cant Deficency –
Cant Deficency occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed higher than the equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the theoretical cant required for such higher speed and actual cant provided.

( iii ) Unimat Machine –
The machine has got 16 independently tiltable tamping tools which enable the machine to work on points and crossing as well as on plain track. The machine has a weight of about 40 tones and can give an average out put of one set of points & crossing per hour.
Out of 16 tools 4 tamping tools are normally used at a time for maintenance of point and crossings. These tools can be tilted independently of each other so that even critical areas can be tamped.
While tamping plain track all the 16 tools are in action and in that situation the machine corresponds to a normal plain line tamping unit.

( iv ) Off Track Tampers –
Off Track Tampers are portable tempers and can be taken off the track in a short time. These tampers are like tools driven by compressed air, electricity or petrol. These tampers work during the interval between trains and do not require any traffic block. These Tampers worked in pairs from opposite sides of the sleepers diagonally under the rail seat in order to have maximum consolidation of ballast.

 ( v ) Oiling and Greasing of Girder Bridges -
Oiling and greasing of bearings is done to ensure that the bearings are well lubricated and working freely to permit expansion and contraction due to variations in temperature. The bearing of the free and fixed ends of all triangulated spans and free ends of plate girders are to be greased.
Greasing is to be done with a mixture of Graphite & Grease normally in the proportion of   1 : 1. The proportion to be used in such that maximum amount of graphite is retained and forming a workable paste.
Oiling & Greasing of bearing is done once in 3 years on a programmed basis.

( vi ) Workability of Concrete :-
Despite all its importance workability is the most elusive property of concrete and is quite difficult to define and measure. In its simplest form a concrete is said to be workable if it can be easily mixed , handled, transported, placed in position and compacted.
Evidently the requirement of workability varies according to the nature of job, the obstruction to the full flow of concrete caused by spacing and nature of reinforcement. The workability of concrete can be measured by one of the following three tests.
1)    Slump test.
2)    Compaction factor test.
3)    Vee-bee test.
Normally slump test is the most popular method. 
( vii ) Cover in RCC -
Reinforcement shall have concrete cover as follows:
        i.For each end of a reinforcing bar, not less than 25 mm, nor less then twice the diameter of the bar.
       ii.For a longitudinal reinforcing bar in a column, not less than 40 mm, nor less than the diameter of the bar.
      iii.For a longitudinal reinforcing bar in a beam, not less than 25 mm, nor less than the diameter of the bar.
     iv.For tensile, compressive, shear or other reinforcement in a slab, not less than 12 mm, nor less than the diameter of the reinforcement.
      v.For any other reinforcement, not less than 12 mm, nor less than the diameter of such reinforcement.
( viii ) Buffer Rails -
Buffer Rails are, a set of rails provided in lieu of SEJ at the ends of LWR/CWR to allow expansion / contraction of adjoining breathing lengths due to temperature variations. These will be laid with prior approval of Chief Engineer at locations where provision of SEJ is not permitted. Buffer rails may also be temporarily laid to facilitate maintenance/renewal operations.
( ix ) Submerged Arc Welding -
In this method the heat is created by the passage of an electric across a gap between two conductors. A metal electrode is energized by an electric voltage and brought close to other metal object there by producing an arc of electric current. Lot of heat is generated by this electric arc, causing the two rail end to weld. This welding can be done by any of the following methods
    i.  Insert plate technique.
   ii.  Scheron process.
  iii.  Enclosed space technique.
Q.8.- ( a ) When is the distressing of LWR / CWR necessary?                   
         ( b ) What precautions will you take for safe maintenance of SWR? 
         ( c ) A weld fractured in LWR section. Explain briefly the procedure for carrying out temporary and permanent repairs.                                             
Ans.- ( a )  Ans. see on page 11
( b ) Precaution during maintenance of SWR –
            i.     Ensuring of correct gaps at the fish plated joints appropriate to the rail temperature.
           ii.     Availability of sufficient and well compacted ballast at all time.
          iii.     Prompt attention in respect of checking and arresting of creep.
          iv.     Watch on abnormal contraction in winter to guard against bending or shearing of bolts and expansion in summer to guard against buckling of track.
           v.     Special attention to locations vulnerable to buckling like short stretches of wooden sleepers between SWR.
          vi.     Scattered renewal of sleepers may be carried out without restriction when the rail temperature is below tm + 25o C.
         vii.     Not more than 30 sleeper spaces in one continuous stretch shall be opened leaving at least 30 fully boxed sleeper spaces between adjacent lengths which are opened out.
        viii.     Adequate number of joggled fish plated with special clamps shall be provided to the gangs for use in case rail or welded joint fail.
Ans.- ( c ) Temporary Repairs :-
If a welding party is not readily available, the fracture shall be repaired by using a cut-rail (not less than 4 meter long) and clamped/bolted.                           
i) A traffic block shall be taken as soon as possible preferably when the rail temperature is within the range specified for td.       
ii) (a) Two points on either side of the fracture shall be marked on the rail such that the length of closure rail (not less than 4 meters) to be inserted is equal to the total length of the rail pieces removed from the track minus allowances for two welds and saw cut (normally 51 mm).
(b) Alternately two points on either side of the fracture shall be marked on the rail at a distance equal to the length of the available closure rail. The length of closure rail should not become less than 4 meters at the time of permanent repairs.
iii) The rails shall then be cut through at these points simultaneously, if possible. The closure rail shall then be inserted joined After joining the traffic shall then be resumed at restricted speed. In case closure rail inserted one of the joints may have to be provided with closure piece of adequate width and joined by one meter fishplate and clamps.
Permanent Repairs :-
(i) If the fracture is such that, wide gap A T welding ban be adopted, then the total length of fractured ends to-be cut shall be equal to the gap required for wide gap welding. Once the two ends are cut, a gap required for wide gap welding will be created by using rail tensors and joint welded by wide-gap Alumino Thermit welding technique.
ii) In case rail closure Temporary Repairs ( ii ) ( a ) has been provided for temporary repairs one joint of the closure rail shall be welded without rail tenser after setting correct gap for welding. However to ensure correct gap during welding of the other joint, tensor shall be used.
iii) In case rail closure as per Temporary Repairs (ii) (b) has been provided at the time of temporary repairs, the rail closure shall be suitably cut such that the length of the rail to be final inserted in track is equal to length of rail remove from track after fracture minus allowances for two welds i.e. 50 mm. Once the closure rail is cut, the closure rail will be welded.
iv) After welding of joints, a length of track equal to breathing length or about 125 meters on either side be unfastened and tapped to ensure equalisation of stress and then refastened.
Q.9.- ( a ) Explain briefly the working of a Ballast Cleaning Machine and steps to be followed to maximize its output?                                                             
         ( b ) What are the different types of On-Track Ballast Cleaning Machines available on Central Railway?                                                                        
( a ) Working of a Ballast Cleaning Machine –
After all the preparations BCM is taken to site where work is to be commenced.
            i.     Before arrival of machine a trench 30 cm deep and 1 meter wide is excavated by removing one sleeper at the site of commencement.
           ii.     A speed restriction of 20 kmph is imposed in the portion to be screened.
          iii.     When BCM reaches the site cutter bar is lowered in the trench and both ends connected to guides through links. The operation takes 40 minutes on first day and 20 minutes on subsequent days.
          iv.     Cutter bar scarifies the ballast, links of rotating chain push the ballast in the inclined guides and lead the ballast to screening units.
           v.     The screening units by linear vibrations screen the ballast. The screened ballast with the help of chutes is unloaded and stacked near the rail seats.
          vi.     The screened waste is sent through conveyors to waste disposal conveyor.
         vii.     The plough grader sweeps the ballast on rails and sleepers and profiles the ballast.
        viii.     Few gang men should move with the machine so that in case of broken sleepers getting entangled in chain, necessary action can be taken.
Steps for maximum out put of BCM -
            i.     Lifting of track if required is done in advance of BCM by UT or other machines in the same block.
           ii.     The cutter bar will cut the formation and form channel under the track, if minimum 250 mm ballast cushion (caked and clean) is not available. If the availability of cushion is less, the track can be temporarily lifted up to 100 mm by BCM itself during working.
          iii.     Since the setting and closing time of the machine is longer, a block of at least four hours is necessary to effectively utilize the machine.
          iv.     Adequate arrangements for supply and training out of ballast shall be ensured.
           v.     Foot by foot survey of the section shall be conducted to see the condition of the track components, ballast, cess width and availability of land for waste disposal.
          vi.     Depth of cutting/magnitude of track should be decided on the basis of proposed rail level.
         vii.     It should be ensured that there is no obstruction in the width of 4100 mm to avoid infringement to cutter chain.
        viii.     In electrified section, distance of foundation of mast from track centre will have to be accurately measured to ensure free movement of cutting chain.
          ix.     Any signal rodding or cable which is likely interrupt the work Should be temporarily removed.
           x.     Level crossings should be opened in advance so as to enable machine to work.
          xi.     Gas cutting equipment should be available at site to cut any obstruction like rail pieces, pipes etc, which might get entangled with cutting chain.
         xii.     One person on either side should move with the machine to watch for any obstruction to cutter chain
( b ) Different Types of On track Ballast Cleaning Machines –
 (i) Ballast Cleaning Machines
            i.     RM-80 for plain track
           ii.     RM-76 for points and crossing
(ii) Shoulder Ballast Cleaning Machines
            i.     FRM-80 Plasser Make
           ii.     KSC-600 Kershaw Make
(iii) Ballast Regulators
Q.10.- ( a ) Name works requiring CRS’s sanction. Also name a few works not requiring his sanction.                                                                                      
            ( b ) Show by sketches the types and locations of speed restriction boards used for temporary engineering speed restrictions.                          
Ans.- ( a ) Works requiring CRS’s sanction –
The following works require CRS’s Sanction.
         i.     Additions, extensions or alterations to running lines.
        ii.     Alteration to points and crossing in running lines.
       iii.     New signaling and interlocking installations or alterations to existing installations.
       iv.     The construction ( but not removal ) of an ash pit on a running line.
        v.     Heavy regarding of running lines involving lowering / raising of track more than 500 mm.
       vi.     New bridges on running lines including road over and under bridges, foot over bridges, extension of existing ones, girder spans, whether additional or in replacement of existing ones including temporary girders.
      vii.     Provision of new level crossings, or shifting of existing ones, on running lines, upgrading, down grading and closing of level crossings.
     viii.     Opening of new or strengthening of existing bridges.
       ix.     Temporary diversion irrespective of length. Permanent diversion more than 2 Km. length with out any station in between and irrespective of length when a new station is involved.
        x.     Additions or alterations to the electrical installation of tracks equipped for electric traction.
       xi.     Movement of ODC where the clearance between the moving dimensions and a fixed structure is less than 150 mm.
      xii.     Increase in the sanctioned speed.
In addition to the above, the Railway board’s sanction is required through CRS in the following cases :-
         i.     Infringement of maximum / minimum dimensions.
        ii.     Use of any locomotive or rolling stock differing from those already running on any section of railway or increasing maximum permissible speed of those already in use.
Ans.- ( b ) Sketches the types and locations of speed restriction boards used for temporary engineering speed restrictions -
Q.11.- Distinguish between the following attempt any four.  
a)  Slip Siding and catch siding.
b)  CTR value of track and CTR of track.
c)  Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete.
d)  CSM and TRT.
e)  RH girder and Early Steel Girder.
f)   Channel sleepers and ST sleepers.
Ans.- ( a ) Slip Siding and catch siding –
Slip Siding –
If the Station yard is in a gradient steeper than 1 in 260 or there is a continuous falling gradient away from the station there is a possibility of vehicles standing in the yard entering or escaping into the block section and cause accidents to prevent such escaping of vehicles into the block section slip siding are provided.
At a station where there is a gradient 1 in 100 falling away from the station within 45 meters beyond the outer most points at either end a slip siding should be provided.
As per the schedule of dimensions no station yard should be constructed nor should any siding join a passenger line on a steeper grade than 1 in 260 except where it is unavoidable and then only with the previous sanction of the railway board obtained through the commissioner of Railway safety when a slip siding is made sufficient prevent accident.
Catch Sidings
Normally all catch sidings except those which are sanded shall be kept alive. On sanded catch siding, the rails shall be kept clear of sand for a length of 21.5 meters, beyond the section insulators in the overhead lines and the switches controlling the sanded catch sidings shall be kept in the neutral position. If an electric engine or single or multiple unit train runs into the sanded length of a catch siding, it may possibly be insulated from earth except through the buffers or couplings if connected to other vehicles, therefore these sidings shall not be made alive when an electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicle coupled thereto are standing in the sanded tracks until all staff have been moved away from positions where they are likely to make contact between the permanent way formation and any part of the locomotive or single or multiple unit train or coupled vehicles. No person shall attempt to enter, or leave or in any other way make contact between the permanent way formation and the electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicles coupled thereto while the overhead equipment of the sanded length of siding is alive.
( b ) CTR value of track and CTR of track -
CTR Value –
CTR value shows of Track performance which is calculated on the basis of peaks such as unevenness, Gauge, twist, Alignment which is noticed during Track recording.
CTR value for Rajdhani route will be calculated as under-
CTR value = 100 – ( U + G + T + A )
Where – U = No of peaks exceeding 6 mm in unevenness per Km.
               G = No. of peaks exceeding 3 mm in gauge per Km.
               T = No. of peaks exceeding 5 mm in twist per Km.
               A = No. of peaks exceeding 5 mm in alignment per Km.
As per the new practice the track is being classified in various categories to the CTR values as under –
CTR Value
Classification of Track
CTR Value
Classification of Track
Between 0 & 50
Between 70 & 80
Very Good
Between 50 & 60
Above 80
Out standing
Between 60 & 70

CTR of track –
Complete Track renewal of track implies renewal of all the components of the track over a particular length. Necessary recoupment of ballast and provision of full ballast cushion is also done along with CTR.
( c ) Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete
Reinforced concrete –
Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension hence plain concrete can only be used where a member is in pure compression. Steel is equally strong in compression and tension but long member can not develop fully strength due to buckling. It is necessary to reinforce the concrete. The reinforced should have following qualities.
  1. There should be good bond.
  2. It should have high tensile strength.
  3. Coefficient of thermal expansion of both should be same.
  4. It should be easily available, easy to cut, bend and place
Concrete should not produce harmful effect on it. Steel satisfies all these requirement and hence used for reinforcing concrete
Prestressed concrete – See Page 16

( d ) CSM and TRT -
A new type continuous action 09-CSM tamping machine has been introduced by M / S Plasser & Theurer. The actual work units however which consist of tamping lifting and lining units are positioned in a separate under frame and are moved in a work cycle from sleeper to sleeper.
Two independent tamping units are provided, one for each rail. These are attached to the machine frame by means of vertical guiding columns.  The tamping units are fitted to the satellite Frame.
The tamping units may be for tamping one sleeper or two sleepers or three sleepers at a time depending upon type/model of tamping machine. 16 tamping tools are provided for tamping each sleeper. The tools are arranged in pairs and each sleeper is tamped by 8 such pairs, on both side of each rail. The units are held by horizontal guiding column in order to slide sideways, which allows their automatic centering over the rails in curves.
The tools are vibrated by piston rods pivoted on eccentric shaft driven by hydraulic motors.
Track Relaying Train ( TRT) -
TRT is a system for complete mechanisation of Track renewal process. It does the following jobs:
i) Threads out old rails from track.
ii) Removes old sleepers.
iii) Levels and compacts ballast bed.
iv) Places new sleepers.
v) Threads in new rails into track.
The quality of track produced by TRT is very good and the traffic is allowed at 40 kmph just after relaying. After first & second tamping, speed is raised to 60 & 80 kmph respectively and after third tamping the speed is raised to normal. It normally takes 10 days to bring speed to normal. At sites where DTS is used, the speed can be raised to normal in six days. After first packing and application of DTS, the speed is raised to 60 kmph and after ballasting and 2nd packing with application of DTS the speed is raised to normal.
( e ) RH girder and Early Steel Girder –
Early Steel Girder – See on Page 9
RH girder – See on page 10
( f ) Channel sleepers and ST sleepers –
Channel sleepers-
The girder bridges are provided with wooden sleepers which are to be replaced with galvanizing mild steel Channel sleepers to the RDSO Drawing. The work of replacement of sleepers will be done in running lines and is required to be block. The existing track on the bridge will be dismantled during the traffic block the track of wooden sleepers will be removed and new steel channel sleeper along with all its fittings will be fixed the running rail and the guard rail will be refixed before clearing of the block.
Steel Trough ( ST ) Sleepers
Steel sleepers are liable to corrode and therefore they should not be used near coastal and other areas, vulnerable to corrosion. They should not be used near ash pits and platform lines where trains stop.
The usual defects noted in the steel sleepers are detailed below –
(i) Rusted and corroded metal
(ii) Cracks at the rail seat or near the lugs.
(iii) Elongation of holes.
Steel sleepers that are over 20 years old should be inspected in detail for defects every year in the same way as wooden sleepers.
Q.12.- ( a ) What is grade compensation in curved? What in the rate of such compensation in BG? Work out the actual gradient required to be provided on a 40 curve where the rulling gradient is 1 in 100.                                                         
           ( b ) Describe the various items of work to be done under systematic through packing.
Ans.- ( a ) Compensation for curvature on gradient:-
The ruling gradient is required to be compensated on curves to offset the extra resistance due to curvature. The curve resistance depends upon a number of variable factors but for simplicity reasons it is taken as a percentage per degree of curve.
Compensation for curvature should be given in all cases where the existing gradient when added to the curve compensation exceeds the ruling gradient. The compensation to be allowed should ordinarily be 70/R percent.(0.04 percent per degree of curvature) for Broad Gauge, 52.5/R per cent (0.03 percent per degree of curvature) for Meter Gauge and 35/R per cent (0.02 per cent per degree of curvature) for Narrow Gauge(762 mm.) where R is the radius of curvature in meters.
Ruling gradient = 1 in 100 = 1%
Compensation for 40 curve = 0.04 x 4 = 0.16%
Max. absolute gradient on curve = 1 – 0.16 = 0.84 %  = 1 in 100 / 0.84 = 1 in 119
( b )
Through packing consists of the following works being done systematically in the order given below-
            i.     Opening the road – Ballast is opened out on either side of the rail seat for a depth of 50 m below the bottom of sleeper.
           ii.     Examination of rails ,sleepers and fastening.
          iii.     Squaring of sleepers.
          iv.     Alignment the track.
           v.     Gauging – The gauge should be checked and uniform gauge within permissible tolerances.
          vi.     Packing of Sleepers – The base rail is sighted by the mate and the dip or the low joints are lifted correctly to ensure a perfect longitudinal level of the sighting rail. The sleepers are than packed. After completing the packing the alignment and top should carefully be checked and minor adjustment carried out.
         vii.     Repacking of joint sleepers- The joint sleepers are than packed once again and cross levels checked.
        viii.     Boxing ballast section and dressing – The ballast section is then properly boxed and dressed .
Through packing is done on a programme basis after the monsoon from one end of the section to the other. A minimum round of one through packing must be given in the year. The normal out put of a gang man for through packing is 36’ to 39’ on BG.
Q.13.- What is meant by M 30 concrete? What are the major factors, which require to be controlled in order to produce high strength concrete at site, based on the design mix?
Ans.-  M 30 concrete –
In the designation of concrete mix M refer to the mix and the number to the specified compressive strength of 150 mm size cube at 28 days expressed in N / mm2 .
M 30 concrete is the mix which compressive strength is  30 N / mm2  after 28 days test of 150mm size cube.                                                                                                    
Factors require for controlled the concrete –
            i.     Water cement ratio is the important factor for controlled the concrete hence to restrict the maximum Water cement ratio to less than 0.5.
           ii.     To ensure that the workability of fresh concrete is suitable for conditions of handling and placing. Due consideration shall be given to the workability of the concrete thus produced slump shall be controlled on the basis of placement in different situations. For normal methods of placing concrete maximum slump shall be restricted to 100 mm.
          iii.     The proportions by weight of cement , aggregates and water shall be based on design of the mix.
          iv.     Mixed design shall be tide and mix proportions checked on the basis of tests conducted at a recognized laboratory.
Q.14.- ( a ) What are the advantages of welded girder over riveted girder?           
           ( b ) What do you understand by DTM as applied to Track maintenance? What are its advantages and disadvantage if any?                                                   
           ( c ) Describe briefly the various tests laid down to judge the portability of drinking water?
Ans.- ( a ) Advantage of welded girder –
            i.Welded girder with riveted intermediate stiffeners result in saving of steel up to 25%.
           ii.Welded girder eliminates the need of rolled sections of non standard sizes and shapes. Also due to non availability of particular rolled section using higher section leading to uneconomical construction is avoided.
          iii.Eliminates drilling of holes and hence gross area is net area for tension members.
          iv.Welded girder eliminated cumbersome connections and water pockets.
           v.Welded girder requires less maintenance due to elimination of rivet heads on top flange thereby facilitating the painting of sleeper seats frequently thus reducing maintenance repairs cost.
         vi.Aesthetic superiority and higher production rates with lesser input.
Ans.- ( b ) Directed Track maintenance – Directed Track maintenance is a method to maintain the track as directed every day and not as a prescribed routine. Directed Track maintenance essentially consist of need based maintenance rather than routine periodical maintenance. Under this system track maintenance is done by proper identification of defects of the track geometry, rectification of these defects under close supervision by attending the track at these isolated locations and thereby maintaining the track to predetermined standards.
Advantage –
            i.Systematic recording of track Geometry from one end of the maintenance unit to the other including inspection of track to record defects which can be noticed visually.
           ii.Analysis of these records and identification of stretches which need attention during periodic maintenance and spots needing immediate attention.
          iii.Rectification of defects and checking quality of work done.
Disadvantage –
Use of Directed track maintenance system should preferably be limited to the following locations.
            i.Track on double lines and multiple lines.
           ii.Track maintained by machine.
          iii.Track being systematically and continuously monitored by special recording devices at fairly frequent intervals.
For adopting directed track maintenance the following are the broad pre requisites.
            i.Reasonably good track geometry with adequate retentively of packing.
           ii.Effective track components.
          iii.Reasonably adequate ballast resistance.
          iv.Stable formation in major portion of the length.
Ans. ( c ) 1.   Physical Examination :-
(a)  Temperature :-  Beyond   80 degree  F.   the  water  becomes  unpalatable
( b ) Color :-  Maximum  20 PPM  on  platinum  cobalt  scale.
(c)  Turbidity :-      5 PPM    To   10 PPM.   
(d)  Odors  &   Tastes :-    Unobjectionable.
2. Chemical  Examination :-
Total  solids ; Hardness; Chlorides; Chlorine; Iron; Magnese; P. H. Value; Arsenic; Lead; Dissolved gases; Copper; Fluorine; Cadmium;   Mineral oil; Zinc; Calcium; Nitrates; Fluorides; etc.
      3.  Bacteriological    Examination :-
Bacteriological  impurities  are  caused  by  the  presence  in  the   water  of  the  Pathogenic   bacteria  making   water  dangerous  for   the   health.
            Bacteriological  test   results   are   indicated   as  under :
Count  of  cloakroom bacteria in 100 ml  by  the Presumptive  test.
1 To 3
4 To 10
Un Satisfactory
Greater then 10.
Q.15.- It is proposed to rebuild a 1 x 6 ft. girder bridge as 1 x 2 m. RCC slab culvert on a BG single line section under traffic by using RH girder span having an over all length of 17 m and a depth of 1 m from Rail level to bottom of girder with the following data –
            Rail level to bottom of foundation = 4.5 m.
            Bottom width of proposed foundation for each abutment = 2.00 m.
            Draw a neat dimensioned free hand sketch of the above showing the seating arrangement under the end of RH girder span depth of the supporting crib and the calculate slopes of earth to be level of excavation for the foundation.           
Ans.-  R.H Girder 17 m. ,  Depth of Girder 1.00 m. , sleeper Crib 1.50 m. Height.
           Proposed Bridge 1 x 2.00 m. RCC Slab.  
           Space available  for Construction = ( Width of both peir at foundation = 2 x 2.00 ) + (Space between Both Aboutment = 2.00 – 2(0.25 +0.125 ) + ( 2 x Excavation slope 1 : 1 = 3.3 ) = 4.00 + 1.25 + 6.6 = 11.85 m.
Field survey has to be taken the extent of regarding dicided and get done.
Arrangements to be made to get the RH girder 17 .00 m. long for insertion of RH girder & CRS sanction to be obtained, DCN to be prepared for Phase working and published for sanctioning of block.      
Phase I – Unloading of RH Girder at site with two cranes under Block.
Phase II -Excavation the formation for sleeper Crib portion under traffic imposing speed restriction, supporting the Track with sand bags for passing the traffic.
Phase III – Take suitable block to insert the sleeper crib in proper position.
Phase IV – Start excavation for girder portion under traffic supporting the track by sand bags.
Phase V – Arrange Crane specified minimum two cranes of 15 T capacity take under block minimum 3 hrs. for insertion of RH girder and remove the existing Girder on bridge. Insert the RH Girder . Erect the speed restriction boards and imposed stop dead and proceed speed restriction.
Phase VI – Dismentale the Existing girder bridge.
Phase VII – Construction new 1 / 2.00 m. RCC Slab Bridge.
Phase VIII – After curing is over arrange special 2 Cranes with 15 MT capacity for removing the RH Girder and place on the cess and Insert RCC slab. Remove the sleeper crib and fill up the gap and link the track. Relax / remove speed restrictions suitably.
Phase IX – Arrange crane special with BFRs and take suitable block for loading the RH girder.


Q.1.-   Write short notes on any Three of the following -                        
    i.    Revise Estimates.
   ii.    Development Fund.          
  iii.    Material Modification.
  iv.    Liability Register.
   v.    Write- off sanction.
  vi.    MAS account.
Ans.- ( I ) Revise Estimates -  See on Page 22.
( ii ) Development Fund –
  This fund is meant to meet expenditure on the following under Demand No.14
            i.Cost of all works relating to amenities for passengers and other railway users.
           ii.The labour welfare works costing individually above the new minor works limit of Rs 10000/-.
          iii.The expenditure on remunerative operating improvements costing more than Rs 10 Lakhs each.
          iv.The cost of construction of quarters for class III and class IV staff.
( iii ) Material Modification – See on page 23.
( iv ) Liability Register –
Liability Register is a manuscript register maintained for the purpose of bringing out the unliquidated liabilities pertaining to each work on a given date.
It is maintains in the Executive Engineer’s office of each district or division showing the particulars –
            i.Approximate amount of liabilities incurred.
           ii.Liabilities liquidated from time to time.
          iii.Approximate unliquidated liabilities pertaining to each work.
The resister helps in the preparation of completion Reports of works and it is particular watched that the accounts of works are closed after taking into account all the outstanding liabilities.
( v ) Write- off sanction – When ever any sums become accrued due to the railway for any kind of services rendered of sums due to the recovered under extent procedure from staff / Parties considered as irrecoverable either fully or partially are said to be written off under competent authorities sanction with out collection of effecting recoveries. The communications authorizing non recovery / not collection are called write off sanction.
( vi ) MAS account -  See on page 23
Q.2.-  ( a ) Explain briefly the difference between ‘’Out of turn work’’ and the work on urgency certificate.                                                                                
          ( b ) Who will bear the cost of manning of unmanned level crossing.  
          ( c ) What procedure is followed for under taking Deposit work. 
Ans.- ( a ) Out of turn work – Every year various works are planned systematically through the works programme and funds are provided for through budget provision. At times due to inescapable conditions some works become necessary to be carried out for which even the funds are not provided for in the current year, such works when justified on safety or urgent nature operational necessities can be taken up as out of turn works funds are reapporpriated from the funds already allotted to other works.       
Urgency certificate. – See on page no. 2                                                                                
( b ) The initial cost of such manning, additional manning or up gradation is to be borne by the State Government/Road Authority concerned, and the recurring and maintenance cost by the Railway.
( c ) Procedure -Applicant should submit his sketches and particulars of works to be executed to Sr. D.C.M.  Sr. D.C.M. refer the case to DRM for investigation and submit his divisional report. Party should be asked to deposit the survey fee as required and cost of plan and estimate. For Government Deptts. Acceptance letter for cost of plans and estimates will do.
Estimate and drawings should be accepted by the party before competent authority’s sanction is obtained. In case of works, they are required to be maintained after completion by railway department at the cost of applicant. Prior acceptance to be obtained for recurring expenditure.
No work to be commenced till detailed estimate is sanctioned and estimated cost deposited by the party. No expenditure in excess of sanctioned estimate should be incurred.
Completion date to be intimated to accounts Department.
The acceptance of the government departments or the payment in cash by the local bodies or private individuals concerned should be obtained charges before the work of preparation of plans and estimates is taken in hand. In cases where the proposed works are subsequently carried out, these percentage charges should be adjusted against departmental charges.
Q.3.- ( a ) Through which demands / grants, the expenditures for Engineering department is provided for?                                                                                
         ( b ) Who will bear the cost of ROB / RUB to be constructed replacement of level crossing?                                                                                      
         ( c ) Distinguish between private Siding and Assisted siding.             
         ( d ) Explain briefly the procedure to be followed for replacement of ‘’cash-Imprest’’.   
Ans.- ( a ) There are Two main grants for engineering Department –
Demand No. 4 – This demand covers the expenditure on repairs and maintenance of permanent way and work Assets like track, other buildings and structures.
Demand No. 16 - The Revised Classification of expenditure on works irrespective of whether they are charged to Capital DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR) or ACF will come under a single Demand-16 namely Assets-Acquisition , 'Construction and Replacement. The Accounting Classification for works expenditure is in the form of a 7 digit—4 module alphabetical code. The first module which is the alpha indicates the source of fund viz., Capital, DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR) or ACF as the case may be. The second module of 2 digits which is numerical will represent the standard Plan Heads. The third module which is also numerical will represent the 2 digits corresponding to the sub and detailed head of classification giving the details of the assets acquired, constructed or replaced. The last module which is of two digits will indicate the primary unit i.e., object of the expenditure.
( b )  Level crossing to be replaced by a road over or under bridge the apportionment of the cost of replacement will be bear as under :-
(i) The Railway will bear 50 per cent of the total cost of the over or under-bridge including approaches. The total cost would include the cost of diversion of road, sewers, cables, gas and water mains, etc., but would exclude the cost of acquisition of any land and structures thereon required for approaches or diversions.
(ii) The Road Authority will bear 50 per cent of the total cost of over or under-bridge including approaches, etc., as referred to above and the cost of acquisition of any land required for approaches and diversions and structures thereon.
( c ) Private Siding and Assisted siding -
Assisted Siding –
An Assisted Siding is a siding to serve a factory, mill or other industrial premises other than colliery or mining are because such siding is anticipated to attract competitive traffic to the Railway.
1)    The applicant should deposit a sum to cover the cost of survey and preparation of plans estimates.
2)    The applicant should deposit the estimated cost of his portion of the work before the construction of the siding is taken up.
3)    The cost of land to be acquired for the siding out side the applicant’s premises should be borne by the applicant.
4)    The incidence of cost of the siding out side the applicant’s premises will be as follows –
a)      The cost of all works which would have to be abandoned in the event of the siding being closed e.g. earth work, bridge work, culverts, buildings etc should be borne by the applicant.
b)      The cost of all works which would be removed by the railway administration in the event of the siding being closed such as rails sleeper’s fastenings, points & crossing, girder work of bridges, signaling & interlocking appliances and machinery of any kind should be borne by the Railway Administration.
5)    Over head electric traction equipment whether on railway land or on private land should be paid by the Railway Administration and will remain as Railway property.
6)    The entire cost of the siding within the applicant’s premises should be borne by the applicant.
Q.4.- ( a ) When can a Railway Servant be deemed to have been placed under suspension.
         ( b ) What are the basic conditions to be satisfied for a person injured on duty to be eligible for compensation under Workman’s Compensation Act?                            
         ( c ) how is the classification of gate – keepers of an engineering gate done? In which of the categories can a gate – keeper fall ?                                                     
Ans.- ( a ) See on page 25.
( b ) As per Workmen’s Compensation Act. An employer is liable to pay compensation if personal injury is caused to a workman by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment. Accident means mishap or untoward event not expected or designed. The accident arises out of the employment or not, depends on the facts of each case. But the underlying principle is that the accident must be connected with the employment and must arise out of it. There must be a causal connection or association between the employment and the accidental injury. Thus if a particular accident would not have happened to a work man had he not been employed to work in the particular place and condition then it would be an accident arising out the employment.
An employer is not liable to pay compensation for an injury by accident arising out of and in the course of employment in the following cases –
1. In respect of any injury which dose not result in the total or partial disablement of the workman for a period exceeding three days.
2. In respect of an injury not resulting in death caused by an accident which is directly attributable to –
a)    The Workman who was at that time under the influence of drinks or drugs.
b)    The Workman who willfully  disregarded or disobeted an order expressly given to him or a rule expressly framed for his safety.
c)    The Workman who willfully removed or  disregarded any safty guard or other device whice he knew to have been provided for the purpose of securing the safety of the workman.
( c ) See on page 25.

Q.5.- Write short notes on any Three of the following -                                
    i.    Trade Test.             
   ii.    Over Time.                 
  iii.    Payment of wages Act.
  iv.    Compassionate Appointment.
   v.    Retirement Benefits.
Ans.- ( I ) Trade Test – See on page 26.
( ii ) Over Time –
Under the HOER the earning of over time depends on the extra amount of work performed between the rostered hours and statutory limits or beyond the statutory limits on the basis of either daily or weekly or two weekly periods as may be prescribed for different categories.
The staff has to work over time when it is necessary due to accidents emergencies, clerical staff are not entitled for over time.
Over time is paid at one and half times of the wages per hour of duty if the employee has worked between the rostered limit and statutory limit and twice the ordinary wages per hour of duty if the employee has worked beyond the statutory limit.
( iii ) The payment of wages Act 1936 –
This act makes provision for prompt payment of due wages to certain classes of persons employed in industrial establishments including Railway & Railway workshop whose wages do not exceed the limit as specified in the act. This also regulated deductions from wages of the persons governed by this act.
( iv ) Compassionate Appointment - See on page 5.
( v ) Retirement Benefits –
The following are the Retirement Benefits granted to pension able and non-pension able Railway employees at the time of retirement from railway service –
            i.Pension / Family pension in the case of pension able employee.
           ii.Employee’s own contribution to P.F. and interest.
          iii.Govt. contribution and interest in case of SRPF optees.
          iv.Retirement gratuity / Death gratuity.
           v.Deposit link insurance to the member of family.
          vi.Group Insurance.
         vii.Leave encashment.
        viii.Transfer allowance, packing allowances and mileage allowance.
          ix.Kit Pass and post retirement Passes.
           x.Medical facilities.
          xi.Booking of Holidays.
         xii.Recruitment of wards on compassionate grounds.
        xiii.Retention of Railway accommodation after retirement or death.
       xiv.Allotment of railway accommodation to wards of retiree or on compassionate ground.
Q.6.- A PWI has been found responsible for causing a collision of a dip-lorry with an express train. Spell out the steps to be train to take DAR action against him, commencing from the time, the accident Enquiry Report has been accepted by the DRM.  
Q.7.- Write short notes on any Five  of the following -                        
a)  CRS Sanction.   
b)  Rail Tensor.                
c)  Buffer Rails.          
d)  Well foundation.    
e)  PPE Act.                   
f)   Oiling and Greasing of Important Bridges.
g)  Submerged Arc Welding.
( a ) CRS Sanction –
The approval of the CRS is required for the execution of any work on the open line, which will affect the running of trains carrying passengers and any temporary arrangements necessary for carrying it out except in case of emergency.
( b ) Rail Tensors –
For distressing and permanent repairs Indian Railway have procured a few Rail Tensors either of hydraulic type called hydro stressors or of mechanical type called mechanical rail tensor.
A hydro stressor consists essentially of a hydraulic pump which transmits its force through connecting vans to clamps which grips the rail. In case of mechanical tensor the force is exerted mechanically by longitudinal jacks by means of this force the rail can be pushed or pulled to a desired length. In case of pushing the force should not exceed 30 tons otherwise the track is likely to buckle on that account. The rail are however normally pulled only during the distressing operations. The rail tensor is capable of distressing a rail at any time when the rail temperature is less than distressing temperature.
( c ) Buffer Rails – See page on 29.
( d ) Well foundation –
It is type of foundation that is generally built in parts at the surface and then sunk to its final position where it forms part of the permanent foundation.
There are many types of well foundation but most commonly used are circular type and Double D type. For single line bridges circular wells are adequate. For double line bridges where peir length is larger double D wells are commonly used.

Circular well is simple to construct easy to sink and has uniform strength in all directions.
Various components of the well foundation are as under –
    i.  Well curb and cutting Edge.
   ii.  Bottom & Top Plug.
  iii.  Well steining.
  iv.  Well cap.
( e ) P.P.E. Act :-               
Public Premises eviction Act – It is the act passed by the Parliament for eviction of unauthorised persons from the public premises.
Under this act Railway officers are nominated as estate officer to whom judiciary powers are allotted equal to civil judges.
Any order issued by Estate officer can not be quashed over ruled by other civil court except for appellant purposes.
Under this act action is taken against persons who have un authorisely occupied Government land building or using any fittings etc.
Different Forms used under this Act are as under –
Form No.
Sections & Sub sections of eviction act.
Sub sec 1 of sec 4
Issue of notice to show cause against order of eviction.
Sub sec 1 of sec 5
Order of eviction after hearing on show cause notice within specified time.
Sub sec 1 of sec 6
After waiting 30 days a notice to be issue of giving time limit of 14 days and circulate in one of the local news paper for recovery of the amount by auction.
Sub sec 3 of sec 6
Show cause notice for recovery of rent and arrears.
Sub sec 1 of sec 7
Order for payment of rent / license fee and arrears.
Sub sec 3 of sec 7
Show cause notice for recovery of damages and order for payment of damages as per schedules.
Sub sec 2 of sec 7
-  do  -
Sub sec 2 of sec 12
Order for asking information on schedule I & II as per section 12.
Sub sec 2 of sec 14
Certified and order letter to collector for recovery of amount due a land revenue.
Sub sec 2 of sec 13
Notice for recovery from their in case of deceased or defaulter.
( f ) Oiling and Greasing of Important Bridges – see page on 28.
( g ) Submerged Arc Welding. -    See page on 29
Q.8.- ( a ) What are the items that are to be complied with before laying of a LWR? 
         ( b ) Why LWR require distressing?                                                          
         ( c ) What is breathing Length?                                                                       
         ( d ) What is a hot weather patrolling and when is it necessary?   
Ans.-( a ) Items which required before laying of a LWR .
i) Replacement of insulated joints by glued joints;
ii) Realignment of curves;
iii) Lifting or lowering of track to eliminate sags and humps;
iv) Introduction and improvement of vertical curves;
v) Stabilisation of troublesome formation;
vi) Rehabilitation of weak bridges involving removal or lifting of rails or introduction of temporary arrangements.
Ans.- ( b ) See on page 11.
          ( c ) See on page 11.
          ( d ) See on page 11.
Q.9.- ( a ) What do you understand by “Residual Chlorine” in water? How is it checked?
         ( b ) Distinguish between “Pressure Filter and Gravity Filter”.                      
         ( c ) What is a “Non return valve”? Where is it provided?                               
         ( d ) What is the function of “ Alum Dosing” in a water treatment plant?       
Ans.- ( a ) Residual chlorine: -   The amount of chlorine remaining at the end in treated water after chlorine used in killing bacteria’s called as Residual chlorine. The dose should be such that a residual chlorine of about 0.2 PPM appears in water after a contact period of 20 minutes.
Free or Residual chlorine available in the water can be very easily found out using chlorotex apparatus (chloroscopes) such apparatus should be available with all engineering staff in charge of chlorination at filtration Plants.
( b ) Pressure Filter – See on Page 17.
Gravity Filter -There are two common types of Gravity Filter namely slow sand filter and rapid sand filter.
Slow Sand Filters :-  These are conventional beds of fine and less carefully graded sand. Effective Size of 0.2 to 0.3mm are commonly used. Thickness of sand bed may vary from 1.0 m to 0.75m. The minimum satisfactory depth is 0.5m. The maximum loss of head is 60cm. When this head is reached the filter is taken up for cleaning. A normal period of operation between cleaning may be about 6 weeks with the turbidity. For cleaning slow sand filter, top layer of sand bed is scrapped. The layer of sand is supported by a layer of gravel about 0.3m thick which is graded from an effective size of about 5mm at the top to 50mm at the bottom. The filtration rate of slow sand filters is approximately 100 to 200 Liter /m2/hr.
Rapid Sand Filter :- Rapid sand filter also consists of layers of sand.. Normally the filtration rate of water through Rapid Sand Filter is 3000 to 6000  Liter/m2/hr. The sand used in rapid sand filter should be free from dirt, with an effective size* of 0.45 to 0.70 mm. The depth of sand layer is 0.60-0.75m. This sand is supported on a gravel layer of depth 0.45m.The effective size of gravel is 2 to 5mm at top and 50mm at bottom. Minimum of 2 units should be provided at any water works so that at least one unit will be available for filteration when other unit is under repair or cleaning operation. The cleaning of rapid sand filter is effected by reversal of flow. First air is passed at the rate of 600-900 lpm/m2 at the pressure of 0.35 kg/cm2 for 5 minutes in the reverse direction. After this water is passed which removes the dirt by bubbling action. The dirty back wash water flows out by a system of drains.
( c ) Non return valve –
These are known as check valves or Reflex valve. Non return valve is an automatic device which allows water to go in one direction only. The Non return valve is placed in water pipe near the pump after sluice valve which obtains water directly from pump the pump. When the pump fails or stops water will not flow back to the pump.
( d ) Function  of Alum Dosing in Water Treatment Plant: -
Alum is generally used in water treatment in process of coagulation. Very fine suspended particles are not removed by plain sedimentation. In addition to fine suspended matter water also contains electrically charged colloidal matters, which are continuously in motion and never settle down due to gravitational force. The purpose of coagulation is to collect in the form of a bulk and heavy precipitate the very fine colloidal matter contained in water, which with out treatment would not settle down. Coagulation is the introduction of a chemical in the water, which can develop, is in soluble gelatinous flocculent precipitate in water. This gelatinous precipitate during its formation and descent through the water absorbs and entangles very fine suspended matter and colloidal impurities. The coagulants further have the advantage of removing colour, odour and taste from water. Aluminum sulphate is the coagulant most commonly used.
Q.10.-  What step are required to be taken to acquire land for a new line? Part of the alignment passes through forest land. Is it possible to commence the work before compensation is paid to the land owners? If so under what circumstances and how?             
Q.11.- ( a ) How will you check the camber of a 45.7 m. through Girder span during inspection? 
           ( b ) Which is the vulnerable location in a 30.5 m through girder requiring special attention during periodical examination?                                                   
           ( c ) What precautions are required for achieving good quality of painting of steel structures?                                                                                               
Ans.- ( a ) Camber is checked with the help of dumpy level or precision level which will facilitate the inspection officials to under stand the structural conditions.
In open web through span girder is to be recorded at every panel point of bottom chords of both trusses of span and compared  with dead load camber in register as well as camber recorded during last inspection to ascertain any loss of camber.
( b ) Special attention during periodical examination of vulnerable location –
The Divisional Engineer should peruse the reports carefully and mark those tanks which he considers are not in satisfactory state of repair. He should then forward the reports to the Assistant Engineer with instructions that the tanks so marked should be inspected and reported on.
Assistant Engineer shall jointly inspect with civil authorities, all RAW / RAT before  the monsoon every year and arrange for their safe maintenance to avoid any danger to near by tracks and structures. Records of the annual inspections should be kept in registers as prescribed. Assistant Engineer should report to the Divisional Engineer details of the action being taken by the Public Works or revenue Department. The Divisional Engineer should timely prevail on the authorities concerned to carry out all necessary repairs before the ensuing monsoon and take other actions to ensure safety of Railway assets.
Copies of the inspection notes of ‘Railway Affecting’ tanks as received from the Public Works
or Revenue Department with particulars of date of inspection and notes of action taken or proposed by him should be included in the Register of Railway Affecting Works maintained by the Assistant Engineer.
Vigilance over Railway Affecting tanks during heavy rains –
(1) the Divisional Engineer and the Assistant Engineer should arrange with the local authorities / village headman in whose jurisdiction ‘Railway Affecting’ tanks are situated to watch them during periods of heavy rain and give timely intimation to the nearest Station Master, if there is likelihood of any tank failing. The Station Master will telephone /  telegraph reports received from village Headman to the Permanent Way Inspector, Assistant Engineer and Divisional Engineer.
(2) When the railway line is threatened, the Assistant Engineer and Permanent Way Inspector shall take adequate steps to ensure the safety of Railway property and staff and arrange patrolling of the line and or post watchmen with necessary equipment at the place or places threatened and advise the Divisional Engineer accordingly.
(3) All the Bridges which are likely to be affected by Railway affecting tanks or other storage works should be provided with a tablet on top of one of the parapets, with the letters RAW engraved on it, followed by an arrow mark pointing in the direction of the railway affecting storage work in question.
(4) If the bridge in whose catchment a Railway affecting tank is located is classified as a vulnerable location, stationary watchmen should be posted during monsoon. If for any reason, repairs as envisaged during the inspection is not carried out, the section of the Railway line likely to be affected should be considered as vulnerable and watchman as considered necessary posted.
( c ) Precautions to be taken during Bridge painting  - See on Page 12
Q.12.- ( a ) what are the various types of track Machines in operation on central Railway and for what purpose are they used?                                                             
           ( b ) Describe briefly the working of PQRS.                                                
Ans.- ( a ) Various types of heavy track machines –
Following major on-track machines, which are in use on Indian Railways at present are as under
Tamping Machines -
(i) Plain Track Tamping Machines
( a )  06-16 Universal Tamping machine (UT).  ( b )  08-16 Unomatic.  ( c )  08-32 Duomatic.
( d )  09-32 Continuous Action Tamping Machine (CSM).  ( e )  09-3x Tamping Express
(ii) Points and Crossing Tamping Machines – ( a )  08-275 Unimat. ( b )  08-275-3S Unimat
(iii) Multi-purpose Tamper (MPT) - Dynamic Track Stabilizer (DTS)
Ballast Handling Machines - (i) Ballast Cleaning Machines – ( a ) RM-80 for plain track.
( b ) RM-76 for points and crossing.
(ii) Shoulder Ballast Cleaning Machines – ( a ) FRM-80 Plasser Make.
( b ) KSC-600 Kershaw Make
(iii) Ballast Regulators.
Track Laying Machines – ( a ) Plasser Quick Relating System (PQRS).
( b ) Track Relaying Train (TRT).
Points & Crossing Changing Machine –
Turn out Renewal MC T-28 (AMECA-Make) , DST.
Sleeper Exchanger and Crane
Special Purpose Machines –
( a ) Mobile Flash Butt Welding Plant K-355 APT (Plasser and Theurer make).
( b ) Rail Grinding Machine (Loram).
( c ) Rail vac jumbo VM – 170 – Vacuum cleaning Machine.
( b ) Working of PQRS -                                       
Plasser Quick Relaying system ( PQRS ) is well suited for carrying out relaying work with concrete sleepers. The working of PQRS equipment can be done in the following ways-
The auxiliary track 3.4 meter gauge is first laid at the location where relaying is to be done. The rails of existing track to be relayed are also changed with 13 m service rails in case of 9 tonne cranes.
A complete material train having the composition and loaded with pre fabricated panels is taken to the site of work after obtaining traffic block and power block.
The two portal cranes are then utilized to dismantle two panels of existing track and load the same in empty BFRs. This is repeated second time so that four panels in existing track have been dismantled and adequate working space is available for the men to do spreading and leveling of ballast.
The ballast bed is made up manually and leveled up to the prescribed level.
In second round it self on return trip the two portal cranes are utilised to lift two pre assembled panels of concrete sleepers from the BFRs and lay them on the leveled ballast bed.
The procedure gets repeated so that in outer trip the two portal cranes lift two dismantled panels and place them in empty BFRs and on return trip the portal cranes lift the two preassembled panels from loaded BFRs and lay them on the prepared bed.
The new panels are than linked up using fish plates fittings and fastenings.
The portal cranes are loaded back in BFRs and the block section is cleared.

Q.13.- ( a ) Describe briefly the latest specification for ballast.                              
           ( b ) What could be reason for pealing of concrete cover of RCC structure? What action will you take to repair the same? What precautions should be taken during construction to avoid such a failure?                                                         
Ans.- ( a ) Specification for Track ballast -
Scope: These specifications will be applicable for stone ballast to be used for all types of sleepers on normal track, turnouts, tunnels and deck slabs etc on all routes
Basic Quality:  Ballast should be hard durable and as far as possible angular along edges/corners, free from weathered portions of parent rock, organic impurities and inorganic residues.
Particle Shape: Ballast should be cubical in shape, not be flaky and should have generally flat faces.                                                                                              
Mode of Manufacture:  To ensure uniformity of supply machine crushed ballast should be preferred for broad gauge and metre gauge routes.                             
Physical Prosperities
Ballast sample should satisfy the following physical properties
Aggregate abrasion value –
30% Max  for BG, MG & NG (Planned/sanctioned for conversion)
35% Max for NG&MG(Other than those planned for conversion)
Aggregate Impact Value –
20% Max  for BG, MG & NG (Planned/sanctioned for conversion)
30% Max for NG&MG(Other than those planned for conversion)
Size and Gradation -
Ballast should satisfy the following size and gradation:
Retained on 65mm sq. mesh sieve  - 5% Maximum and Retained 40mm sq.mesh sieve* 40% - 60% for machine crushed ballast only
Under Size Ballast :  The ballast shall be treated as undersize and shall be rejected if –Retention on 40mm Sq. Mesh sieve is less than 40% Retention on 20mm square mesh sieve is less than 98% (for machine crushed)
Stack Measurement: Stacking shall be done on a neat, plain and firm ground with good drainage.  The height of stack shall not be less than 1m except in hilly areas where it may be 0.5m.  Top width of stack shall not be less than 1.0m.  Top of stack shall be kept parallel to the ground plane.  The side slopes of stack should not be flatter than 1.5:1 (Horizontal: Vertical).  Cubical content of each stack shall normally be not less than 30 cum in plain areas and 15 cum in hilly areas.
Wagon Measurement - In case of ballast supply taken by direct loading into wagons, a continues white line should be painted inside the wagon to indicate the level to which ballast should be loaded.  The cubical content in cubic meter corresponding to which line should also be painted on both sides outside the wagon.
Shrinkage Allowance -Payment shall be made for the gross measurement either in stacks or in wagons without any deduction for shrinkage/voids.  However, when ballast supply is made in wagons, shrinkage up to 8% shall be permitted while verifying the quantities at destination.
Sampling and Testing -A minimum of 3 samples of ballast for sieve analysis shall be taken for measurement done on any particular date even if the numbers of stacks to be measured are less than three.
The test viz., determination of Abrasion Value, Impact Value and Water Absorption should be got done through approved laboratories or Railway’s own laboratories
Sample should be collected using a wooden box of internal dimensions 0.3mx0.3mx0.3m from different parts of the stack/wagon.

Q.14.- ( a ) What are the various methods of monitoring track geometry running quality of track being used by the railways at present? Describe briefly.                      
           ( b ) What pre-tamping attention, attention during tamping and post-tamping attention should be ensured to achieve good results?                                             
Ans.- ( a ) Various methods of monitoring track geometry running quality of track –
Track is done by track recording cars, Oscillograph cars and portable accelerometers for monitoring track geometry running quality of track .
Track Recording by Mechanical / Electronic Equipment The following track recording equipments are in use in Indian Railways at present :–
(1) Track recording cars.
(2) Hallade track recorder.
(3) Oscillograph car.
(4) Portable accelerometers.
Track Recording Car There are two types of track recording cars currently in use in Indian Railways, one mechanical and the other electronic. With these track recording cars, it is possible to have a continuous record of the track geometry under loaded conditions, by running the cars at nominated intervals.
Mechanical Track Recording Car (B.G.) It has two bogies one of two axles and the other of three axles. The measuring bogie has a base of 3.6 meters, and is three axled with an axle load of 7.0 tons. It gives a continuous record of –
(a) Unevenness - Left rail.
(b) unevenness - Right rail.
(c) Gauge.
(d) Twist.
(e) Curvature/alignment - Left rail.
(f) Curvature/alignment - Right rail.
(g) Speed
Electronic Track Recording Car Broad Gauge –  The construction features of this car are the same as those of the mechanical car excepting that the sensing elements of various track parameters transmit impulses electrically. Electrical track recorder gives out the various track parameters in analogue form on a graph paper.
( b ) Pre-tamping attention – See on Page 12.
During tamping attention -
  1. The gap between top edge of the tamping blade and the bottom edge of the sleeper in closed position of the tamping tool should be adjusted depending upon the type of rail and sleepers. The gap for different types of sleepers will be as under:
a)    Metal sleeper : 32-25mm
b)    Flat bottom sleeper : 10-12mm
  1. The tamping (Squeezing) pressure should be adjusted according to the type of sleeper as under:
a)    CST-9 sleeper : 90 - 100 kg/
b)    ST or wooden sleeper : 100 - 110 kg/
c)    PSC sleeper : 110 - 120 kg/
  1. Care should be taken to ensure that tamping tools are inserted centrally between the sleepers into the ballast to avoid damage to sleepers. The number of insertions of the tamping tool per sleeper varies with the type of sleeper and the amount of track lift to be given. While tamping, following guidelines should be adopted:-
a)    CST-9 sleepers and steel trough sleepers may require double insertion before passing on to the next sleeper.
b)    Wooden sleepers, require one insertion up to 20 mm lift and two insertions for lifts above 20mm.
c)    One additional insertion for joint sleepers will also be required.
d)    Concrete sleepers require one insertion up to 30 mm lift. Two insertions may be required for lifts above 30mm.
  1. For maintenance packing, squeezing time of 0.4 second to 0.6 seconds should normally be adequate. Higher squeezing time may be required for track with caked up ballast.
  2. The machine should have full complement of tamping tools. The tamping tools should not be loose or worn out. The wear on the tool blade should not be more than 20% of its sectional area.
  3. A ramp of 1 in 1000 shall be given before dosing the day's work and obligatory point.
  4. Care shall be taken to provide for Slew and lift compensation as necessary. Heavy slewing or lifting should normally be done in steps of not more than 50 mm. For LWR/CWR track, the relevant provisions of. LWR manual shall be adhered to.
  5. During tamping, the parameters of tamped track should be checked immediately after tamping for cross level and alignment and necessity corrective action should be taken.
Post tamping attention – See on Page 12.


         ( c ) Distinguish between private Siding and Assisted siding.             
         ( d ) Explain briefly the procedure to be followed for replacement of ‘’cash-Imprest’’.   
Q.6.- A PWI has been found responsible for causing a collision of a dip-lorry with an express train. Spell out the steps to be train to take DAR action against him, commencing from the time, the accident Enquiry Report has been accepted by the DRM.  
Q.10.-  What step are required to be taken to acquire land for a new line? Part of the alignment passes through forest land. Is it possible to commence the work before compensation is paid to the land owners? If so under what circumstances and how?             
Q.13.- ( b ) What could be reason for pealing of concrete cover of RCC structure? What action will you take to repair the same? What precautions should be taken during construction to avoid such a failure?