CIVIL ENGINEERING  01 – 02 - 2003

Q.1.- ( a ) What are the two main Grants for engineering Department and what are detailed heads, sub heads and primary units?                                                         
         ( b ) Mention the various Budgetary stages for reviews in a financial year?   

Ans.- ( a ) There are Two main grants for engineering Department –
Demand No. 4 – This demand covers the expenditure on repairs and maintenance of permanent way and work Assets like track, other buildings and structures.
Primary units / minor Head - 100 Establishment in offices, 200 Maintenance of Permanent Way. 300 Maintenance of Bridge work and Tunnels inclu­ding Road over/under bridges. 400 Maintenance of service buildings (other than staff Quarters and Welfare buildings). 500 Water supply, Sanitation and Roads (other than Colonies, staff Quarters  and Welfare buildings). 600 Other repairs. 700 Special repairs pertaining to Breaches, Accidents etc. including Special Revenue works. 900 Credits or recoveries.

Sub-Heads – 110, 120, 130, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 310, 320, 330, 340, 410, 420, 430, 440, 510, 520, 530, 610, 620, 630, 640, 650, 710, 720, 730, 910, 920, 930.
Detailed Heads – 111 to 118, 121 to 128, 130, 211 to 213, 221 to 223, 231 to 233, 241 to 243, 251 to 253, 261 to 263, 271 to 273, 281 to 283, 291, 293, 310, 320, 330, 340, 410, 420, 431 to 433, 440, 510, 520, 531, 532, 610, 620, 630, 641 to 644, 651 to 657, 711 to 715, 721 to 725, 731, 911, 912, 921 to 923, 930. ,
Demand No. 16 - The Revised Classification of expenditure on works irrespective of whether they are charged to Capital DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR) or ACF will come under a single Demand-16 namely Assets-Acquisition , 'Construction and Replacement. The Accounting Classification for works expenditure is in the form of a 7 digit—4 module alphabetical code. The first module which is the alpha indicates the source of fund viz., Capital, DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR) or ACF as the case may be. The second module of 2 digits which is numerical will represent the standard Plan Heads. The third module which is also numerical will represent the 2 digits corresponding to the sub and detailed head of classification giving the details of the assets acquired, constructed or replaced. The last module which is of two digits will indicate the primary unit i.e., object of the expenditure.
For the purpose of link with the accounts of the Central Government the Plant heads will form the Minor Heads of Railway Capital under the Major Heads "546-Capital Outlay on Indian Railways-Commercial lines" and "546-Capital Outlay on Indian Railways-Strategic lines
The classification of the assets will be indicated by these 6 digits in all the cases irrespective of whether the expenditure on the asset is chargeable to Capital, DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR), or ACF, The source of financing will be indicated in the beginning in the following alphabets: -
P-Capital. , R-Revenue (OLWR) , T-ACF , Q-DRF ,  S—DF.

( b ) Following are the Budgetary reviews under taken on Railway during the course of a financial year –
              i.     August Review – This is one of the Budgetary reviewed stages. This is conducted in the month of August every year by all the spending units / executives to see that any modification are necessary in the allotments placed at the disposal at the beginning of the year.
             ii.     The second budgetary review is carried out at the time of submission of revised and Budget estimate. The revised estimates for the current year are shown on the basis of conclusions derived after this examination in respect of revenue expenditure.
            iii.     Modification Statements – Railway Administration are required to review the budgetary position even after the receipts of revised allotment and advise the position to Railway Board in regard to additional allotment required or surrenders to be made during the current year under each head of grant or appropriation. This is done through the submission of modification statements. First modification statement is sent to Board by 1st February and final modification statement is sent by 21 st February.

Q.2.- ( a ) What are On Account Bill and Final Bill of works and what documents and certificates are to be attached with each?                                                                                          ( b ) Describe the Material at site account.                                             
Ans.- ( a ) On account Bill & Final Bill :-
On account Bill :- On account Bill  or running bill prepared on Form No. E 1337 is indicated for use in contract works only and not supplies . On account  payments before the completion of a work should be made through this form.
Final Bill :- The final bill prepared on form No. E 1338 should be  used for making final payments . i.e. On closing running accounts for works . Normally only one final bill should be prepared against an agreement or work order . But in cases where groups of annual repair works are included in one agreement or work order there is no objection to more than one final bill being prepared on the completion of each group or certain groups.

( b ) M.A.S. Accounts –
This stands for material at site account. This is a suspense head of account that is maintained to watch actual consumption of materials obtained for specific work such materials stores are requisitioned separately by the executive officer and consigned to the site of work. The monitory value of materials consumed is debited to the work concerned through works Register. The balance under this suspense represents materials on hand yet to be consumed.

Q.3.- Write short notes on any Three of the following -                        
    i.    Operating Ratio.                                        
   ii.    Material Modification.        
  iii.    Completion Report.                
  iv.    Canons of financial properties.
   v.    D.S.8 Note.
Ans.- ( I ) Operating Ratio –
Operating Ratio is the ratio which the total working expenses excluding suspense of a Railway bear to its gross earning or in other words represents the percentage of working expenses in this connection include appropriation to DRF and Pension fund as well. This is used to measure the efficiency of the railway.
( ii ) Material modification :-
No material modification in a work or scheme as sanctioned should be permitted or under taken with out the prior approval of the authority who sanctioned the estimate . In the case of estimates sanctioned by the Railway Board or higher authority instances of will be considered to be a material modifications of a sanctioned project or work are given in below –
The following may be taken as material modifications on the lines under construction and open line works estimated to cost rupees one crore and over .
a)    Any change in the alignment likely to affect the facilities offered to the public in the neighborhood or likely to increase or decrease the length of the line by over one kilometer.
b)    Introduction of any new station or omission of any station.
c)    Any alteration in the type or number of engines or vehicles provided in an estimate for rolling stock.
d)    A change in the layout of a yard affecting the general method of working or increasing or deducting the number of trains that can be dealt with.
e)    Any departure from the standards of  construction as accepted by the railway board in the Abstract estimate or use of any second new material.
f)     The introduction or omission of any work or facility involving a sum of Rs. 5 Laces and over.
g)    Any modification of a sub work provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an additional out lay on that sub work of more than Rs. 5 laces.
h)    The introduction of any new sub work not provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an out lay of more than Rs. 5 laces.
i)      Any alteration in the standards of inter locks.

( iii ) Completion  Report :-
The object of a completion report is to compare the cost of work actually constructed with those provided for in the last sanctioned estimate. A completion report of a project duly verified by the accounts officer should be submitted to the Railway board within eighteen months after the end of the financial half-year in which the completion estimate is submitted. It should state the expenditure in the same details as abstract estimate sanctioned by the Railway board and should indicate material modification if any.
The completion report should be prepared in prescribed form and brief explanation should be furnished for: -
                   i.Excess of not less than 10% or Rs25000/- which ever is less over the estimated provision under each work.
                  ii.Saving of not less than20% or Rs1,00,000/- which ever is less occurring under each sub-work.
A completion report for work costing Rs one crore and less should be subjected to the detailed instructions issued by the Railway administration and should be prepared in the same form for works costing above Rs one crore. It should compare the actual expenditure incurred with the sanctioned amount and should give details under each sub-work. Brief explanation should be furnished for all excess and savings of over 5% or Rs10,000/- which ever is less. A completion report duly verified by the accounts officer should ordinarily be submitted to the authority that accorded the administrative approval to the work for information or regularization.

( iv ) Canones of financial Property –
In exercise of their financial powers the sanctioning authorities must pay regard to the following principles –
  1. The expenditure should not prima facie be more than the occasion demands, and that every govt. servant should exercise the same vigilance in respect of the expenditure of his own money.
  2. No authority should exercise its powers of sanctioning expenditure to pass an order, which will directly, or indirectly be to its own advantage.
  3. Public money should not be utilized for benefit of a particular person or section of the community.
  4. The allowances such as travelling allowance sanctioned to staff should be so regulated that it should not become a source of earning of the recipient.

( v ) Ds8  Note:-  ( G27 f )
This is a receipt voucher on which credit is given to the party returning the released material not required for use. Such material is classified     by stores officer and credit is given to the returning party.
The following type of material should be return on Ds8 Note-
1.    Balance material after completion of specific work.
2.    Release material from old work.
3.    Tools and plants which is used or in broken condition.
4.    Scrap.
It is prepared in six copies. First copy is office copy.One block copy 2,3,4 is sent to the depot along with the material, 5th copy is sent to officer A/Cs and 6th copy is sent as advance copy to depot which is returned back as record in depot , 3rd copy sent to A/c and 4th copy sent to consignee as A/Cs.

Q.4.- ( a ) What steps are being taken for Man Power planning on Indian Railway?   
         ( b ) What are the classification of staff under HOER? Give one example for each.

Ans.- ( a ) The cost of staff on railway amounts to approximately 605 of the total working expenses there fore it would be necessary to plan its manpower in such a way that adequate staff are made available for the new assets without incurring additional expenditure. This is being achieved by locating the excess manpower in the existing system and making available for additional assets after giving necessary training where ever necessary. 
In order to achieve these objectives to arrest the bottlenecks and to ensure smooth working of railways the Ministry of railways have planned its manpower suitably as under -
1. Recruitment of staff with proper and suitable educational and technical qualifications by upgrading the limit of educational and technical qualifications for most of the categories.
2. Arranging training frequent refresher courses, promotional courses technical courses and catering orientation courses in Government and non Government institutions.

Ans. – ( b ) The Railway employee have been classified as under –
Intensive – The employment of a railway servant is said to be intensive when it has been declared to be so on the ground that it is of a strenuous nature involving sustained attention or hard manual labour with little or no period of relaxation.
Essentially Intermittent – The staff whose daily hours of duty includes periods of 6 hours or more during which although they are required to be on duty but are not called to display either physical or sustained attention such as waiting room bearers, sweepers, caretakers, saloon attendants, bungalow peons etc.
Excluded – Employment of a railway servant is said to be excluded those staff employed in a confidential capacity or supervisory staff, Armed staff of staff of RPF, Teaching staff of railway schools, Certain para medical staff such as Stenos, PWI, IOW, Foremen, TXRs, RPF staff, Midwives, Health Visitors, school teachers etc.
Continuous – who have not been classified in above three such as Office staff, Parcel clerks, reservation office staff, guards, Drivers, Train clerks etc.

Q.5.- ( a ) What are the steps involved in finalizing a major penalties charge sheet?   
         (  b ) Describe in brief the procedure for compassionate Ground Appointments? 

Ans.- ( a )  Steps involved in finalizing a major penalties charge sheet-  
              i.     Issue of charge sheet S.F. 5.
             ii.     Submission of written statement of defense by the delinquent employee within a period of 10 days.
            iii.     Permission to inspect and take note from documents.
           iv.     Appointment of enquiry officer.
            v.     Appointment of presenting officer.
           vi.     Nomination of Assisting Railway Servant by the delinquent employee.
          vii.     Inquiry – ( I ) Preliminary Inquiry. ( ii ) Examination in chief ( main Inquiry ) .
         viii.     Submission of Inquiry report and finding by Inquiry officer to disciplinary authority.
           ix.     Forwarding of inquiry report and finding by the disciplinary authority to the delinquent employee for submission of his oral / written final defense.                                     
            x.     Order of disciplinary Authority ( speaking order ).
           xi.     Communication of penalty to the delinquent employee with a copy of speaking order.               

Ana.- ( b ) Procedure for compassionate Ground Appointments -
Appointment on compassionate Ground relate to those appointments which are given to dependents of regular railway employees who lose their lives in the course of duty or die in service. The following should be the order of priority to be followed while offering appointments on compassionate Ground –
              i.     Dependents of employees who die or are permanently crippled in the course of duty.
             ii.     Dependents of employees who die in harness as result of railway accident while off duty.
           iii.     Dependents of employees who die on service or are medically incapacitated.
Son / daughter / widow / widower of the employee are eligible to be appointment on compassionate ground. All appointments on compassionate ground should be made only in recruitment grades. Normally the persons seeking appointments on compassionate grounds should fulfill the conditions of eligibility regarding age and qualifications prescribed for appointment to the post concerned.
The candidate applying for appointment on compassionate ground in group C post should be subjected to suitability test by a committee of three Sr. Scale Officers. The candidate who are to be offered appointment may be appointed on submission of character certificates from two gazetted Officers. The power to make compassionate appointments is vests in the General Manager. In case of Group C posts the power have been delegated to CPOs who may in consultation with the Head of Department concerned appoint a candidate to such a post. In case of Group D posts the power to make such appointment should be delegated to DRM.

Q.6. -  Write short notes on any Three of the following -                       
    i.    Trade Test.                                    
   ii.    PREM                           
  iii.    Hospital Leave.                   
  iv.    Qualifying service.                         
   v.    Calamity Advance.  
Ans.- ( i ) Trade Test  -
With a view of perform the work in a trade an artisan staff should have the skill required for the trade and for this Railway workers classifications Tribunal in 1948 emphasized that the fairest and the best means of classifying the artisans in skilled and semi skilled in each trade should be through the trade test method.
The trade tests will be arranged by an Assistant officer of the branch concerned. The results of Trade test  should be supervised by an official not below the rank of IOW in charge.
The trade test result with the recommendations of the trade testing officer will be placed through the senior scale office of the branch concerned officer of deputy’s rank who are competent to approve of the trade test Assessments.
( ii ) PREM ( Participation of Railway Employees in Management ) :-
To facilitate meaningful and effective participation of workers in the management process it was decided in March 1994 that the Corporate Enterprise Group at the Board, Zonal and divisional level should be restructured and designated as group for participation of Railway employees in management ( PREM ). Also to make the working of PREM more purposeful a separate cell headed by a joint secretary was set up under the direct control of secretary Railway Board. The joint secretary shall assist the secretary in convening the meeting of the Group periodically and monitor the implementation of various decisions taken. He will also monitor the working of PREM at the Zonal and Divisional levels.
The board objectives of PREM are :-
Evaluate the functioning of the Railways and exchange date and ideas.
Appraise the investment programs, particularly in regard to housing and other welfare services.
Identify areas and devise action-oriented methods for maximizing organizational effectiveness, the use of technology and towards building up the image of the Railway as a service organization.
To facilitate effective and meaningful participation of the railway employees in the management process.             
To give them a sense of involvement and pride in the organisation’s works.
To discuss and identify the measures for improving the quality of service to the rail passengers and safety operations.
Structure –
At Board level –
At Board’s level the Group shall comprise the Chairman Member of Railway Board, Secretary, railway Board, four representatives each from the two recognized railway men’s federations and two representatives each from the two Railway Officers Federations.
At Zonal Railway level –
At the Zonal Railway level the Group shall comprise the GM, AGM coordinating heads of the departments, four representatives each from the two recognized Railway man’s Federation and two representatives each from two railway Officers Federations.
At Divisional Level -
At the Divisional level the Group shall consist of DRM, ADRM, Officers – in – charge of various branches, four representatives each from of the Railway man’s Federation and two representatives each from two railway Officers Federations.
( iii ) Hospital Leave –
Hospital Leave may be granted to railway servants other in Group A & B while under treatment for illness of injuries if such illness or injury is directly due to risk incurred in the course of official duties, on production of medical certificate from an authorized medical attendant.
Hospital Leave may also be granted to employees who have to remain absent from duty for amputation and replacement of artificial limb or for obtaining spare limb.
The amount of Hospital leave which may be granted by GM to Railway servants is unlimited. Hospital Leave shall not be debited against the leave account and may be combined with any other leave.
( iv ) Qualify Service :-
Qualify service includes the period of permanent, temporary or officiating service with out interruption by confirmation in the same or other post excluding leave without pay other than covered by medical certificate, apprentice / under age service, suspension treated other than duty / strike period not treated as dies on.
For the purpose of pension qualifying service is considered in terms of completed six monthly period.
( v ) Calamity Advance –
The advance is admissible only to non gezetted Railway servants whose property, movable or immovable has been substantially affected or damaged by the natural calamity. An advance of one month’s pay recoverable in three monthly installments may be granted to staff in the circumstances such as floods Earthquake, Cyclones, or if the Railway servants camp is burnt.

Q.7.- Write short notes on any Six of the following -                        
          i.    Cant Deficiency and Cant Excess.                          
         ii.    Switch & Expansion joint and Breathing Length.
        iii.    Free Board & Clearance.                   
       iv.    Scour Depth and Danger Level.           
        v.    Private & Assisted Siding.   
       vi.    Security Deposit & Earnest money.                                     
      vii.    Catch siding & Slip Siding.
     viii.    Temporary & Permanent Speed restriction and Engineering Allowance.
       ix.    Design Mix and Quality control in concrete.
        x.    CRS Sanction.        
Ans.- ( i ) Cant Deficiency and Cant Excess –
Cant Deficency –
Cant Deficency occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed higher than the equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the theoretical cant required for such higher speed and actual cant provided.
Cant excess –
Cant excess occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed lower than equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the actual cant and the theoretical cant required for such lower speed.
( ii ) Switch & Expansion joint and Breathing Length -
Switch  & Expansion Joint ( SEJ ) –
Switch Expansion, Joint (SEJ) is an expansion joint installed at each end of LWR/CWR to permit expansion/contraction of the adjoining breathing lengths due to temperature variations.
The exact location of SEJ shall be fixed taking into account the location of various obligatory paints such as level crossings, girder bridges, points and crossings gradients, curves and insulated joints. SEJ with straight tongue and stock shall not be located on curves sharper than 0.5 degree (3500 m radius) as far as possible. SEJ shall not be located on transition of curves.
Breathing length of LWR –
Breathing Length is that length at each end of LWR/CWR, which is subjected to expansion/contraction on account: of temperature variations. Usual breathing lengths in BG for different types of track structures and for different temperature zones as laid down.

 ( iii ) Free Board & Clearance -
Free Board – This is the vertical distance between the high flood level inclusive of afflux and the formation level.
Clearance - This is the vertical distance between the high flood level inclusive of afflux and the bottom most part of bridge super structure like slab girder etc.

( iv ) Scour Depth and Danger Level –
Depth of Scour-
The maximum scour depth in a stream can be ascertained when ever possible by actual sounding at or near the site proposed for the bridge during or immediately after a flood. Before the scour holes have had time to silt up due to allowance should be made in the observed depth for increase in scour resulting from-
  1. The designed discharge being greater than the flood discharge during which the scour was observed.
  2. The increase in velocity due to the obstruction in flow caused by construction of the bridge.
Where the above practical method of determining scour is not possible the following theoretical method may be used as a guide when dealing with natural streams is alluvial beds.       D = 0.473 [ Q / F ] 
Where D = Depth of scour below HFL for regime conditions in a stable channel in meters.
           Q = Design discharge in cumecs.  
           F= Silt factor = 1.76 √ m , m is the mean diameter of particles in mm.
Danger level –
It is not possible to lay down any adhoc levels for fixing danger levels. It has to be decided on the spot for each and every individual bridge depending upon the site conditions. Local conditions such as nature of bed, condition of approach bank, depth of foundation & free board to be allowed should influence the decision.
The marking of danger level would imply that is would be safe for the flood water to reach up to the danger level with out affecting the safety of the bridge structure or of its foundations or approaches. Danger level for a particular bridge should be fixed after site inspection, examination of records of past history, local enquiries about flood, afflux and velocity of water under bridge.

( v ) Private & Assisted Siding -
Assisted Siding –
An Assisted Siding is a siding to serve a factory, mill or other industrial premises other than colliery or mining are because such siding is anticipated to attract competitive traffic to the Railway.
1)    The applicant should deposit a sum to cover the cost of survey and preparation of plans estimates.
2)    The applicant should deposit the estimated cost of his portion of the work before the construction of the siding is taken up.
3)    The cost of land to be acquired for the siding out side the applicant’s premises should be borne by the applicant.
4)    The incidence of cost of the siding out side the applicant’s premises will be as follows –
a)      The cost of all works which would have to be abandoned in the event of the siding being closed e.g. earth work, bridge work, culverts, buildings etc should be borne by the applicant.
b)      The cost of all works which would be removed by the railway administration in the event of the siding being closed such as rails sleeper’s fastenings, points & crossing, girder work of bridges, signaling & interlocking appliances and machinery of any kind should be borne by the Railway Administration.
5)    Over head electric traction equipment whether on railway land or on private land should be paid by the Railway Administration and will remain as Railway property.
6)    The entire cost of the siding within the applicant’s premises should be borne by the applicant.
( vi ) Security Deposit & Earnest money –
Security Deposit – A Security deposit is taken for the satisfaction of and efficient execution of the work within the agreed time from contractors. Such Security deposit may also be percentage deduction from on accounts bills of contractors called as retention Money usually 10% of the gross amount of bill. The scale of Security Deposit is as under –
  1. Contracts up to one lack in value 10% of the value of contract.
  2. Next one lack in value 7½% of the value of contract.
  3. For 3rd one lack and above in value 5% of the value of contract. Subject to maximum of 10 lacks.
The amount over and above 3 lacks to be recovered from the progressive bills of the contractor at the rate of 10% till it reaches the required value.
Earnest money –
The Tenderer shall be required to deposit Earnest money with the tender for the due performance with the stipulation to keep the offer open till such date as specified in the tender. Earnest money should be either in cash, deposit receipts, pay orders, demand draft.
The earnest money shall be 2% of estimated tender value. The earnest money shall be rounded to the nearest Rs. 10/- . Earnest money shall be applicable for all modes of tendering
 ( vii ) Catch siding & Slip Siding -
Catch Sidings
Normally all catch sidings except those which are sanded shall be kept alive. On sanded catch siding, the rails shall be kept clear of sand for a length of 21.5 metres, beyond the section insulators in the overhead lines and the switches controlling the sanded catch sidings shall be kept in the neutral position. If an electric engine or single or multiple unit train runs into the sanded length of a catch siding, it may possibly be insulated from earth except through the buffers or couplings if connected to other vehicles, therefore these sidings shall not be made alive when an electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicle coupled thereto are standing in the sanded tracks until all staff have been moved away from positions where they are likely to make contact between the permanent way formation and any part of the locomotive or single or multiple unit train or coupled vehicles. No person shall attempt to enter, or leave or in any other way make contact between the permanent way formation and the electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicles coupled thereto while the overhead equipment of the sanded length of siding is alive.
Slip Siding –
If the Station yard is in a gradient steeper than 1 in 260 or there is a continuous falling gradient away from the station there is a possibility of vehicles standing in the yard entering or escaping into the block section and cause accidents to prevent such escaping of vehicles into the block section slip siding are provided.
At a station where there is a gradient 1 in 100 falling away from the station within 45 meters beyond the outer most points at either end a slip siding should be provided.
As per the schedule of dimensions no station yard should be constructed nor should any siding join a passenger line on a steeper grade than 1 in 260 except where it is unavoidable and then only with the previous sanction of the railway board obtained through the commissioner of Railway safety when a slip siding is made sufficient prevent accident.
( viii ) Temporary & Permanent Speed restriction and Engineering Allowance -
Temporary Speed restriction –
The Temporary  speed restrictions to be imposed during various sequences of work such as Opening, relaying and initial packing, through packing, Picking up of slacks as required, tamping, Attention to track as required, These consists of :
(a) Caution indicator.
(b) Speed indicator.
(c ) Stop indicator.
(d) Termination indicators ( T/P & T/G).
Permanent speed restriction -
Permanent speed restrictions in force are notified in working time-tables. The speed indicators are erected to indicate to the Drivers the speed restrictions to be observed e.g., between stations, and at stations due to weaker/non standard track/ bridges, restrictions on curves, grades and points and crossings etc.
The indicators to be used are similar to those used for temporary restrictions, namely, caution indicator, speed/stop indicators and termination indicators (T/P&T/G). The details of the indicators and the distance at which they are to be fixed are the same in both the cases
The permanent indicators need not be flood lit at night as in the case of temporary indicators/ signals.
Engineering Allowance -
The Divisional Engineer in consultation with the Operating Department. Where necessary, separate power and crew should be arranged. Provision of Engineering time allowance in the working time table should be arranged with the Traffic Department.
( ix ) Design Mix and Quality control in concrete-
Design mix –
The mix shall be designed to produce the grade of concrete having the required workability and characteristic strength not less than the appropriate value. The tar gate mean strength of concrete mix should be equal to the characteristic strength plus 1.65 times the standard deviation.
The objective of concrete mix design is to produce a concrete of desired compressive strength with adequate workability. Design of concrete mix involves determine of the proportions of cement , water, course and fine aggregates.
Quality control in concrete –
Adequate quality control measures should be taken at the site of work. The construction should result in satisfactory strength serviceability and long term durability so as to lower the over all life cycle cost. Quality control in construction activity related to –
              i.     Proper design.
             ii.     Use of adequate materials and components to be supplied by the producers.
            iii.     Proper workmanship in the execution of works.
           iv.     Proper care during the use of structure.
            v.     Materials for concrete.
           vi.     The related plant and machinery, equipments.
          vii.     The tasks and responsibility of all persons involved.
         viii.     For adequate checking and control.
           ix.     Maintenance of adequate documentation.
( x ) CRS Sanction –
The approval of the CRS is required for the execution of any work on the open line, which will affect the running of trains carrying passengers and any temporary arrangements necessary for carrying it out except in case of emergency.
Q.8.- ( a ) What safety precautions are to be taken for maintenance of LWR / CWR during extreme hot weather and cold weather?                                               
          ( b ) Explain in brief USFD testing of rails and welds.                                 
Ans.- ( a ) Safety precautions are to be taken for maintenance of LWR / CWR -
    i.  Check and carry LWR/CWR equipment daily. Each Gang mate/PWM should keep two sets of joggled fishplates, 2 clamps, one rail thermometer, special 1m long fishplates, rail closure pieces, one straight edge and one feeler-gauge. The thermometer should be regularly checked with that of standard thermometer kept in PWI’s office.
   ii.  Know the td of your section/panels.
  iii.  Keep the ballast section full and in compacted condition particularly in cribs and shoulders.
  iv.  Get your SEJs oiled and greased once in a fortnight.
   v.  Check the gaps of SEJ at extremes of temperatures.
  vi.  Keep the patrolling equipments always handy and start patrolling of track as soon as temperature exceeds td+200C
 vii.  Keep sharp look out for severe alignment defects in summer.
viii.  Keep the anchors wherever provided always butting against the sleepers.
  ix.  Renew fittings only on one sleeper at a time.
   x.  Ensure that fittings are tightly fitted at proper places at all times.
  xi.  Pack loose sleepers without lifting or opening track in summer.
 xii.  Attend only one or two sleepers at a time for adjusting fittings while removing a kink.
xiii.  Confine essential maintenance to period when the temperature is below td+100C.
xiv.  Impose speed restriction if temperature exceeds td+200C during consolidation period.
xv.  Pay special attention to SEJs, breathing lengths, curves, approaches to level crossings, umbellate bridges, horizontal and vertical curves.
xvi.  Check that reference posts at SEJ and at centre of LWR/CWR are correctly maintained.
xvii.  Learn the six items (I) missing and loose fastenings, (ii) shortage of ballast, (iii) misalignment, (IV) slewing, (v) lifting (VI) improper packing, about which you should be very careful to avoid buckling.
xviii.  Learn what to do when there is buckling or fracture in the track.
xix.  Ensure that all bridges and its approaches have all fittings at all times and are regularly tightened.
( b ) USFD testing of rails and welds
Rails & weld failure can be detect by USFD Ultrasonic flow detection test. A defect in rail which will ultimately lead to the fracture or breakage of rail is called a flow. Thus it is necessary to detect these flows and take timely action to remove them.
The detection of rail flows can be done either by visual examination of rail end or by Rail flow detection equipment.
Q.9.- As AEN in charge you have to carry out 3.0 Km of CTR with 60 Kg 10 rail welded panels on MBC sleepers of existing LWR main line track of 52 KG. on CST9 sleepers. Broadly give the planning and steps involved for execution of this work from start to finish in a financial year.                                                                                             
Ans.- Planning of Renewals – Renewals may be planned in as long and continuous lengths as practicable, within the available resources with priorities to meet the projected traffic. Short isolated stretches of 3 kms. on condition basis may be programmed along with the adjoining lengths, if these stretches do not confirm to the required standards. Priority in planning renewals should be given to busy and important lines.
Track renewal programmes shall be framed by the Chief Engineer of each Railway taking into consideration the proposals submitted by the Divisional Engineers.
Track Renewal Programme
(1) Initiation of Proposals – Track renewal proposals are submitted to the Divisional Engineer by the Assistant Engineer on condition basis and also on the basis of various inspections carried out during the year. The Divisional Engineer shall personally check the details submitted by the Assistant Engineers at site and compile and initiate the track renewal programme indicating the priorities. The justification for track works shall be prepared on the basis of factually correct data and submitted in proforma. It shall include an abstract estimate of the cost of work and detailed narrative justification covering technical and financial aspects. The Divisional Engineer should personally satisfy himself about the reasonableness of the proposal and certify that the justification furnished is factually correct. The Assistant Engineer should keep a close watch on the condition of all track on their sub-divisions so that every length which after careful and judicious examination requires renewal, is included in the proposals, bearing in mind that the programme is prepared a year in advance and as much as two years may elapse before renewals are carried out. The proposals should reach the Chief Engineer’s Office by end of March.
(2)Verification of proposals by the Track Cell in the Chief Engineer’s Office – Important items relating to complete track renewal.
(a) Co-ordinate the proposals received from the divisions;
(b) Frame programmes for renewal taking into account the sections planned for renewal;
(c) Decide priority for the works;
(d) Satisfy himself that the renewal is unavoidable in the case of track renewal proposals which are justified primarily on condition basis but are premature as far as quantum of traffic carried (G.M.T.) is concerned.
(e) Finalise the track renewal programme and submit the same to the Chief Track Engineer/Chief Engineer for his approval. On receipt of Railway Board’s sanction to the track renewal programme, arrangements will be made by the Headquarters for supply of track materials to the Divisions and for coordinated execution and control over the works.
Q.10.- ( a ) What is mechanical compaction of earth work and what system you will observe for quality control and measurements and payments to the contractor? Draw the typical cross section of a double line track in bank and cutting.                       
           ( b ) What are the function of blanketing material and how its thickness is to be decided in case of earth work in railway bank.                                                        
Ans.- ( a ) Mechanical compaction of earth work -
Compaction is the process of increasing the density of soil by mechanical means by packing the soil particles closer together with reduction of air voids and to obtain a homogeneous soil mass having improved soil properties. Compaction brings many desirable changes in the soil properties as follows:
a) Helps soils to acquire increase in strength.
b) Reduces compressibility.
c) Increases density and reduces permeability.
d) Reduction in erodability.
e) Results in homogenous uniform soil mass of known properties.
f) Reduction in frost susceptibility in cold regions.
However, while compaction of earthwork is a necessary condition to achieve a stable formation, it does not help in checking against the following causes which needs to be taken care during the design of bank or cutting :
(i) Excessive creep or slipping of slopes .
(ii) Swelling and shrinkage characteristic of soils due to variation in moisture content.
(iii) Mud pumping at ballast - soil interface.
(iv) Settlements due to consolidation of bank.
Factors Affecting Compaction in the Field:- 
(a) Compacting Effort: In modern construction projects, heavy compaction machinery are deployed to provide compaction energy. Sheep foot rollers or pneumatic rollers provide the kneading action. Silty soil can be effectively compacted by Sheep foot roller/pneumatic roller or smooth wheel roller. For compacting sandy and gravelly soil, vibratory rollers are most effective. If granular soil have some fines both smooth wheeled and pneumatic rollers can be used.
(b) Moisture Control: Proper control of moisture content in soil is necessary for achieving desired density. Maximum density with minimum compacting effort can be achieved by compaction of soil near its OMC (Optimum Moisture Content). If natural moisture content of the soil is less than the OMC, calculated amount of water should be added with sprinkler attached to water tanker and mixed with soil by motor grader for uniform moisture content. When soil is too wet it is required to be dried by aeration to reach up to OMC.
(c) Soil Type: Type of soil has a great influence on its compaction characteristics.
(d) Thickness of Layer:-Layer thickness depends upon type of soil involved and type of roller its weight and contact pressure of its drums. Normally, 200 – 300 mm layer thickness is optimum in the field for achieving homogenous compaction.
(e) Number of Passes: Density of soil will increase with the number of passes of roller.
Method of Measurement and Payment -
            i.The initial rate for earthwork, carried out manually, will include the first lead of 50 metres and 2 metre lift free.
           ii.Lift from borrow pits to natural ground level is not to be taken into account in any payment for lift, unless the pit is deeper than 1.6 metres and then, only the portion below 1.5 metres will be allowed payment for additional lift.
          iii.The Engineer will then enter the reduced levels at which such soil is met on the relevant cross-section in his Classification Register, whenever a change of classification is involved, and obtain the initials of the Contractor on the reduced levels entered. 
          iv.In case of mechanical earthwork where the excavation is in ‘’All types of soil’’ the Engineer will enter the reduced level at the classification of rock requiring blasting
           v.In case of banks made up from cutting spoil, measurements of leads will be taken where necessary from the centre of gravity of the embankment mass, by using a mass diagram. However Mass diagram may not be prepared in case of mechanical earthwork where free lead in up to 1.0 km. and all lifts are included.
          vi.The quantity of work done will be arrived at from cross section measurements of banks. In the case of such measurement, all bridge structures, openings and other gaps and quantities are to be deducted in full as existing at the time of final measurement.
         vii.Rates for earthwork is inclusive of jungle of clearing, dressing and maintenance, and is also inclusive all plant and tools, maintenance of level pegs, construction of approach ramp, making berms, dressing of slopes, maintenance of earthwork through monsoon, stacking of released boulders from cuttings, construction of temporary approaches for execution of earthwork.
        viii.(j) Side drains in cuttings below formation level and catch water drains above cuttings will be paid for by measurement at the rates shown in the Schedule for excavation in cuttings.
Ans.- ( b ) Function of Blanketing Material -
              i.     It reduces traffic-induced stresses to a tolerable limit on the top of sub grade
             ii.     It prevents penetration of ballast into the sub grade.
            iii.     Its absence or inadequate thickness results in yielding formation and instability.
           iv.     Its absence may result in bearing capacity as well as progressive shear failure of sub grade soil.                                                 
            v.     It restricts plastic deformation of sub grade caused due to cyclic stresses induced by moving loads.
           vi.     It results in increased track modulus and thereby reduces track deformations.
          vii.     It facilitates drainage of surface water and reduces moisture variations in sub grade.                                                
         viii.     It prevents mud pumping by separating the ballast and sub grade soil.
           ix.     It ensures that the induced stress in sub grade are below the threshold stress of sub grade soil.
            x.     It ensures dissipation of excess pore water pressure developed in sub grade on account of cyclic loading and leads to increase in shear strength of sub grade soil.
           xi.     It obviates the need for formation rehabilitation work under running traffic at prohibitive cost.
          xii.     It leads to enhanced performance of sub grade as sub grade can serve designed functions more efficiently and effectively.
Depth of Blanket Layer: -
Depth of blanket layer of specified material depends primarily on type of sub grade soil and axle load of the traffic.
Depth of blanket to be provided for axle loads up to 22.5t for different types of sub grade soils (minimum top one meter thickness) has been given as under. In case more than one type of soil exists in top one meter then soil requiring higher thickness of blanket will govern.
Poorly graded Gravel ,  Poorly grade Sand , Silty Gravel , Silty Gravel , Clayey Gravel , soils shall need minimum 45cm thick Blanket.                     
Clayey Gravel , Silty Sand , Clayey Sand, Clayey Silty sand , soils shall need minimum 60cm thick Blanket.   Silt with low plasticity,  Silty clay of low plasticity, Clay of low plasticity, Silt of medium plasticity,  Clay of medium plasticity, Rocks which are very susceptible to weathering, types of soils shall need minimum 1m thick Blanket.
Cross Section of formation width for bank for concrete sleeper track on BG for double line
Cross Section of formation width for Cutting for concrete sleeper track on BG for double line

Q.11.- ( a ) How are the zonal contract fixed? What is the limit of a zonal work order?    
           ( b ) What is the procedure for dispensing with calling of tenders and doing work on quotation?                                                                                                       
           ( c ) How the variations in contract are dealt with?                                              
Ans.- ( a ) Zonal Contract –
It is often advantageous to allot all miner works and all works of repairs and maintenance in a particular zone for a definite period to one contractor. The works of supply of building material may also be allotted to same contractor. The division is divided into suitable zones and a contractor is reelected to carry out the works in the zones.
The period for zonal contract is from Ist July to 30th June. 10% variation in the quantity on total cost is permissible. It may be invited in the month of April and finalised by June end.
The zonal contracts are mainly intended for executing the usual ordinary maintenance works new minor works costing up to Rs 1,00,000/- in a particular zone or area with the concurrence of finance.
The zonal contracts also cover the supply of the materials such as bricks, ballast (road metal) stone chips, timber, murum, sand etc. Cost of any one item not exceeding Rs 50,000/- at a time.
( b ) Procedure for dispensing with calling of tenders and doing work on quotation - 
The power should be exercised sparingly and reasons for calling quotations should be recorded in writing.
Quotations should not be for fancy items or those items, which can be, executed through existing contracts/Zonal contracts.
Quotations should be invited from at least three contractors out Of whish at least two should be from approved list of division and a minimum notice of 7 days should be given. The quotation should be received, opened and tabulated in the same manner as tenders. It should be ensured that quotations are from genuine firms.
J.A. grade officer shall obtain prior approval of next higher authority justifying the urgency before inviting the quotations. Junior scale officers / AENs are not empowered to invite quotations Of any value either for Works or Supply of materials. AENs may carry out purchases though Imparts cash within their power of local purchase.
The accepting authority should certify that the rates accepted are available.
Each officer shall maintain a register of quotations and should ensure before accepting a quotation that the annual ceiling limit exceeded Of Rs.4 lakhs has not been exceeded. This ceiling limit is inclusive of all types of quotations.
Ans.- ( c ) Variation statement in contracts -
The Engineer on behalf of the Railway shall be entitled by order in writing to enlarge or extend, diminish or reduce the works or make any alterations in their design, character position, site, quantities, dimensions or in the method of their execution or in the combination and use of materials for the execution thereof or to order any additional work to be done or any works not to be done and the contractor will not be entitled to any compensation for any increase/reduction in the quantities of work but will be paid only for the actual amount of work done and for approved materials supplied against a specific order.
Unless otherwise specified in the special conditions of the contract, the accepted variation in quantity of each individual item of the contract would be up to 25% of the quantity originally contracted, except in case of foundation work. The contractor shall be bound to carry out the work at the agreed rates and shall not be entitled to any claim or any compensation whatsoever up to the limit of 25% variation in quantity of individual item of works.
In case of earthwork, the variation limit of 25% shall apply to the gross quantity of earth work and variation in the quantities of individual classifications of soil shall not be subject to this limit. In case of foundation work, no variation limit shall apply and the work shall be carried out by the contractor on agreed rates irrespective of any variation.
In case of Zonal work the limit of 20 % variation in quantity of individual item of works and 25% variation on work order subject to not exceed from maximum limit of work order cost 1 lack. 
Variation in Contract Quantities are as under -                              
Up to + 25% of Agr. Value: Same Rates
> + 25% and up to + 40% : 2% reduction in rates
> + 40% and up to + 50% : Additional 2% reduction
Execution of quantities beyond + 50% of overall Agreement Value to be done through fresh tender or by negotiating rates with existing contractor.
If variation is beyond –25% of C.V. negotiation is not required to be done
Include regulatory mechanism (for variations) in contract itself.
Q.12.- ( a ) What are the monsoon precautions to be taken in a sub division having heavy rain fall?                                                                                                        
            ( b )  A breach of 6m. length with average depth of 4.5 meter has taken place in a flash flood. Design the temporary girder arrangement for restoration of traffic. Assume suitable dimensions for drawing the sketch?                                              
Ans.- ( A )
 Monsoon precautions to be taken in a sub division having heavy rain fall are as under –
              i.     All catch water drains and side drains must be cleared of silt, vegetation and other obstructions.
             ii.     The waterways of bridges must be cleared of vegetation and other obstructions.
            iii.     Protective and river training works must be maintained in good condition and repairs carried out wherever necessary. Scour holes should be filled with boulders.
           iv.     The High Flood Level (H.F.L.), Full Supply Level (F.S.L.) in the case of canals, and Danger Level (D.L.) must be painted.
            v.     Water shall not be allowed to stagnate on the track. For this purpose, cross drains should be provided at regular intervals. In yards, cross drains and longitudinal drains should be cleared/provided to proper grades.
           vi.     In hilly areas, where there is incidence of falling boulders, a survey should be carried out to locate loose boulders.
          vii.     Selection of Patrolman and Watchman should be made The equipment of Patrolmen and other watchman shall be complete in all respects.
         viii.     Spare trolleys should be kept in readiness at the headquarters of the Permanent Way Inspector Rivers in the upstream reaches should be inspected for guarding against possible change in watercourse.
           ix.     The prescribed reserve stock of boulders, empty cement bags, wire netting and sand/quarry dust should be kept at specified locations for rushing to site
            x.     The temporary Engineering indicators must be painted and kept ready for use.
           xi.     The rain gauges should be inspected before the monsoon and it should be ensured that they are in perfect working condition.
          xii.     Vulnerable locations/kilometrages should be reviewed jointly by the Assistant Engineers and Divisional Engineers and on the basis of past history and pre monsoon inspections and the register of vulnerable locations should be brought up-to-date.
 ( b )Temporary girder arrangement for restoration of traffic for breach of 6m. x 4.5 m. –
Temporary girder arrangement for restoration of traffic for breach of 6m. x 4.5m. should be done as per showing in the sketch. For this R.H. Girder 18.30 m. long support on sleeper crib.
Q.13.- ( a ) What are items of detailed inspection of a open web steel girder of 45.7 m. span.
           ( b ) Suggest the launching scheme for super structure of 3 x 30.5 m span steel girders to bridge a deep gorge.     
Ans.- ( a ) The Assistant Engineer shall inspect every bridge on the sub division including road and foot over bridges once a year after monsoon during the prescribed months and record results in ink in the Bridge inspection register.
Bridges the condition of which warrant special attention should be inspected more frequently.
In case of Girder Bridge 3 x 60 feet Bridge classified on major Bridge. For major bridges entries of bridge inspection should made under the following heads –
            i.     Foundation & flooring – Extent or scour and damage.
           ii.     Masonry – Condition and extent of defects.
          iii.     Protective works – Scour slips or settlement.
          iv.     Bed Blocks – Tendency to movement and cracking.
           v.     Bearing and expansion arrangements – Defects in seatings and expansion arrangements.
          vi.     Steel work – Structural condition of girders and Paint.
         vii.     Sleepers – Condition and renewals required.
        viii.     Track – Defects in line and level.
Under each head the first entry should state whether the previous year’s notes have been attended.
And also following aspects should be noted while inspecting steel girder bridges –
            i.     Loss of camber – Plate girder of span above 35 m and open web girders are provided with camber to be checked by using dumpy level or precision level.
           ii.     Distortion.
          iii.     Loose Rivets – To be checked with the help of light hammer weighing 110 gms.
          iv.     Corrosion.
           v.     Fatigue Cracks.
Ans.- ( b ) For launching steel girders of 3 x 30.5 m span of the major bridge, The following are the four methods :-
By slewing method – This method is suitable when there is adequate space to accommodate old and new spans on the abutment and piers.
Replacing by sliding method – This method when there is no space to accommodate old and new spans on the abutment and piers, the new spans are erected with the help of trussels.
Replacing by Rolling method – In rolling method the new spans are erected on the approaches hence that line is blocked. Diversion should be avoided by inserting the turnout before commencing the replacing work.
Replacing by Service span method or Enveloping method – This is the most reliable method by launching the service span and replacing can be carried out advantage of this method.
Before taking the work of replacing CRS should  be approached for his sanction along with the method of replacing. CRS sanction should be obtained.
Draft circular notice to be prepared and published for the phase working and blocks.
Phase I – Obtain suitable block and launch the service span for the Ist span.
Phase II – Obtain suitable block, change the floor system from old spans to service span and allow the traffic with restricted speed.
Phase  III – Remove the old spans under suitable blocks.
Phase IV – Launch the new spans in positions with the help of check trolley under suitable block.
Phase V – Under suitable blocks change the floor system from service span to the new span.
Phase VI – Under the suitable block roll the service span to the next span.
This process is repeated till all the three spans are replaced.
Q.14.- ( a ) Draw out a plan for PQRS yard and mention the various activities dealt with in PQRS yard.                                                                                                
            ( b ) What are the various schedules of maintenance for CSM ( Tamping Machine ) and draw a labeled sketch of tamping bank of CSM.                                        

Ans.- ( a ) Various activities in PQRS yard –
Auxiliary track – Auxiliary track is laid to 3.40 m. gauge both at the site of work and at base depot lines. It is supported at every 2 m. on wooden blocks or released CST-9 plates. Rail level of the auxiliary track shall be 40 mm above the existing rail level.      
PQRS Rake Formation – The following should be the marshaling order of the PQRS Rake- 
1. Engine.            2. Brake van.         3. Crew rest van cum mobile workshop.    
4. Covered wagon for oil etc.           5. Machine BFR.         6. Loaded BFRs with new panels.    7. Empty BFRs.      
Working system – The actual laying operation can be done by adopting any of the following modes of working –
Pulling – In this mode the PQRS rake is pulled by the engine as the work progresses.
Pushing - In this mode the PQRS rake is pushed by the engine as the work progresses.
Train Parting - In this mode the PQRS rake is parted at site keeping the loaded.                   
Relaying – The activities can be described at two fronts. Base depot activity and relaying site activities.
Base depot – The main activities in the base depot are –
         i.     Unloading of PRC sleepers from the rake.
        ii.     Fabrication of new panels.
       iii.     Unloading of released panels from PQRS rake.
       iv.     Dismantling of released panels.
        v.     Loading of prefabricated panels.
       vi.     Formation of PQRS rake.
      vii.     Maintenance of machines.
     viii.     Dispatched of released materials.
       ix.     Loading / unloading of ballast if the base depot is also to be used as ballast depot.
Plan for PQRS yard
Model PQRS Yard Layout

Ans.- ( b ) Various schedules of maintenance for CSM ( Tamping Machine ) -
The following maintenance schedules for all system and sub assemblies of the tie tamping machines are suggested for their working –
Schedule I – After every working day.
Schedule II – After 50 hours of engine working or three weeks which ever is earlier.
Schedule III - After 100 hours of engine working or Six weeks which ever is earlier.
Schedule IV - After 200 hours of engine working or three month which ever is earlier.
Schedule V – Yearly.
Inter POH – After 2000 hours of engine working.
POH – After 4000 hours of engine working or 600 km.
Schedule I to IV should be carried out at site with the help or Mobil workshop and Schedule V should be done either in zonal or in zonal sub centers as convenient. Inter POH should be arranged in zonal centers and POH in Central workshop recently set up at Allahabad.

Q.15.- ( a ) Draw bending moment and Shear force diagram for a simply supported beam of 6 m span having over hange of 2 m on one side ( 6 + 2 ) and one end at wall with a UDL of 500 kg per meter.                                                                                       
            ( b ) Sketch out the typical detailing of reinforcement of above RCC beam. ( without detailed design calculations )                                                                   
Ans.- ( b )
Ans.- ( a )
Taking moment about A –
RB x 6 = ( 500 x 8 x 8/2 ) = 16000 kg.  
      RB = 16000 / 6 = 2666.67 Kg.                    
RA = ( 500 x 8 ) – 2666.67 = 4000 – 2666.67 = 1333.33 Kg.                                             

Shear Force –

The shear force diagram is drawn in fig. And values are Tabulated hear
FC = 0,                 FB = - ( 2 x 500 ) + 2666.67 = - 1000 + 2666.67 = 1666.67 kg.        
FA = 1666.67 – ( 6 x 500 ) = 1666.67 – 3000 = - 1333.33 kg.                       

Bending Moment –

The Bending Moment Diagram is drawn in fig. And the values are tabulated hear
MA = 0 ,    MC = 0 ,   MB =  - 500 x 2 x 2/2 = - 1000 kg.m.                                          

Maximum Bending Moment –               x                 6 - x     

                                                           ------------  =  --------------

1333.33              1666.67
1666.67 x = ( 1333.33 x 6 ) – 1333.33 x ,   1666.67 x – 1333.33 x = 7999.98
3000 x = 7999.98 ,      x = 7999.98 / 3000 = 2.67 m.
MM = - ( 500 x 5.33 x 5.33 / 2 ) + ( 2666.67 x 3.33 ) = - 7102.23 + 8880.01  = 1777.78 kg.m.
Q.16.- ( a ) What is final location survey and what details are to be covered for FLS of a new line project.                                                                                                       
           ( b ) Describe various provisions under official languages Act 3 ( 3 )   and also explain the prize incentives for good work done in Hindi.                                  
Ans.- ( a )  Final Location Survey –
A final Location Survey is under taken on the completion of traffic survey to select the final rout of the line to be constructed, taking into consideration all the circumstances of the case including the probable expenses to ensure that alignment selected final is most economical. During the course of the survey the center line finally located should be marked out by pegs at every 30 meters. Survey is made in connection with all the bridges waterways curves and stations proposed to be built and their plans, sections and designs are also prepared. 
Details covered for FLS of a new line project.-
Preliminary Investigation - In the case of construction of new lines a preliminary investigation should be undertaken by the Railway Administration.
Terms of reference - The project Investigator should be supplied by the Railway Administration with terms of reference, and should indicate the category of line.   
Categories of Lines - Broad Gauge lines on Indian Railways are classified into various categories indicated below, on the basis of future maximum permissible speed.
Scope of Survey Operations. -
(1)        Staking out of the centre line;
(2)    Levelling along with the centre line, with transverse levels where necessary and cross sections of important rivers;
(3)        Plane Table Survey of a Strip of country 100 meters on each side of the centre line;
(4)        Plane Table Survey of rivers requiring a provision of a water way of 1.10 sq. mts. or upwards;
(5)        Plane Table Survey of Station sites.
Alignment - In fixing the alignment of railway line such as Position of curves, Degree of Curvature, Transition Curves, Gradients, Vertical Curves etc..                                                                                     

Ans.- Provisions under official languages Act 3 ( 3 ) -  

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Prize incentives for good work done in Hindi-
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Q.1.- What is alphanumeric system of allocation of expenditure under revenue Grant and works grants? Give an example of such allocation of expenditure on an activity you are associated with.                                                                          
Ans.- The Revised Classification of expenditure on works irrespective of whether they are charged to Capital DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR) or ACF will come under a single Demand-16 namely Assets-Acquisition , 'Construction and Replacement. The Accounting Classification for works expenditure is in the form of a 7 digit—4 module alphamerical code. The first module which is the alpha indicates the source of fund viz., Capital, DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR) or ACF as the case may be. The second module of 2 digits which is numerical will represent the standard Plan Heads. The third module which is also numerical will represent the 2 digits corresponding to the sub and detailed head of classification giving the details of the assets acquired, constructed or replaced. The last module which is of two digits will indicate the primary unit i.e., object of the expenditure.
For example, when track renewals are undertaken the allocation of expenditure will be given as 3141 or 3142 for renewal of rails and fastenings or sleepers and fastening as the case may be. To these 4 digits will, however, be added the code for primary unit of expenditure viz., wages or materials etc. to complete the allocation e. g., 3141-04 will indicate the pay and allowances of departmental establishment engaged on renewals of rails and fastenings. The cost of Permanent Way materials etc. directly supplied for this work will be allocated to 3141-04 and so on.
Q.2.- Describe in brief the format in which a detailed Estimate of construction covering all activities will have to be arranged ( without quantities ) for –
                  A Road Over Bridge for PWD on Deposit term basis.
                  Railway siding for a cement Plant on deposit term basis.        
Q. 3. -  Write short notes on any four of the following -                           
    i.    Part I & Part II Audit Reports..
   ii.    Advice Note.                  
  iii.    Stock Sheets.                     
  iv.    Write Off.
   v.    Final Bill.
  vi.    Variation Statement in Contracts.
 vii.    Briefing Note.
Ans.- ( I ) Part I & Part II Audit Reports –
The DAuO conduct inspection of the executive and subordinate offices of the entire division once in 3 years. Programme is made in advance and the concerned officers are advised in advance so as to enable them to keep their records ready.
The reports, as a result of such inspections consist of two parts –
Part I – Contains more important irregularities.
Part II – Contains minor irregularties.
The final disposal of Part II audit notes rests with the Accounts Officer and no reply to the divisional audit Officer is necessary. However, when required these should be made available to the DAuO.
Replied to Part I are to be submitted by the Divisional Officers to the DAuO through the Divisional Accounts Officer, as early as possible ( within 2 months ) indicating there in the action taken. The closure of the objections rests with the ADuO.
(ii ) Advice Notes –
Advice Notes to prepared on form no. S- 1539 returning to stores. Separate Advice Note should be prepared for each group and for new, second-hand, scrap and condemned materials and should show the nomenclature and other particulars of the stores, the head or heads of account to be credited as well as the rates and value of the stores.  Separate serial numbers should be given for Advice Notes originating from each shop.
The foreman returning to stores should retain one copy as his block foil send the remaining four foils along with the materials to sub-ward-keeper.
The materials should be checked with the Advice Notes and arranged for inspection and valuation by the Depot Officer or a gazetted officer on his behalf.  Immediately after the stores the stores in stock are valued, the sub-ward-keeper should complete the four foils in this respect, take into stock (either his own or that of the parent ward) and initial the advice Notes and send them to the depot office through the parent ward where they should be assigned R.O. numbers as usual.
The four foil, after signature by the Depot Officer or a gazetted officer on his behalf, should be disposed of, as follows:-
The first foil retained as record,
The second foil sent to the returning officer,
The third and fourth foils sent to the Stores Accounts Office after the numerical ledgers    
have been posted.
( iii ) Stock Sheets  -
The proper custody and accountal of stores is the prime duty and function of an executive or the stockholder. To ensure this verification of stock is done either departmentally or by the Accounts stock verifier. The stock verification sheets are prepared giving the numerical balances of items as in the ledgers and actual stock. The verification between ledger balances and actual stock are clearly brought out. The verifier and the stockholder jointly sign these sheets.
One copy of the sheet is kept with the stock verifier and three copies are handed over to the stockholder. The stock holder is required to offer his explanation for variation and recon cite the discrepancies and submit the sheets in duplicate to the divisional office for scrutiny and acceptance. These sheets are then forwarded by divisional office along with their remark to the Accounts.
Clearance of out standing S.V. Sheets is closely watched by the department and also by accounts. At the time of handing over charge the stock holder is required to clear the out standing S.V. Sheets for any reason the same should be recorded in the handing over notes by the stock holder.
( iv ) Write off sanction –
When ever any sums become accrued due to the railway for any kind of services rendered of sums due to the recovered under extent procedure from staff / Parties considered as irrecoverable either fully or partially are said to be written off under competent authorities sanction with out collection of effecting recoveries. The communications authorizing non recovery / not collection are called write off sanction
( v ) Final Bill :- see on page 2
( vi ) Variation statement in contracts – see on page 14
( vii ) Briefing Note –
After the tender opening the preparation of briefing notes is another serious activity in the process of tender finalisation. The briefing note is prepared by the executive office giving all facts, details, conditions, etc to assist the tender committee in finalisation of the tenders.
The tabulated comparative statement and briefing note both in duplicate together with the original tenders shall be sent for scrutiny to the section officer deputed for the purpose. The statement should be signed by him in token of his verification.
Q.4.- ( a ) What is the procedure for creation of additional posts for additional assets?      
         ( b ) How Group ‘D’ vacancies are filled up these days on Railways?         
Q.5.- ( a ) What are various minor penalties under D & AR ?                                
         ( b ) Give steps up a staff for loss of stores on account of neglect of duty. 
Ans.- ( a ) Minor Penalties :-
  1. Censure.
  2. Withholding of Promotions for a specified period.
  3. Recovery from pay of the whole or part of any pecuniary loss caused to the government or railway administration by negligence or breach of orders.
( a ) Withholding of Privilege Passes or PTO’s or both.
( b ) Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for period not exceeding 3 years. NC and not adversely affecting pension.
  1. Withholding of increments of pay for a specified Period ( NC / C )
Q.6. -  Write short notes on any four of the following -                            
    i.    Conduct Rules.                            
   ii.    Suspension.                    
  iii.    Industrial dispute Act.           
  iv.    Final Settlement on superannuation.
   v.    Productivity Linked Bonus.
  vi.    PNM.                                   
 vii.    Communal Roster.
( I ) Conduct Rules –
The code of conduct of Government servant is both written and unwritten. The written code of conduct is therefore not exhaustive. Every employee is bound to observe himself in his dealing with the public as compatible with his employment. An improper conduct therefore, outside the employment is likely to give rise to disciplinary proceedings.
Every Government servant is Railway servant is bound to observe certain rules of conduct and discipline in the discharge of duties. The code of discipline which is binding on the Government servants, as stated above is both written and unwritten. The Government servant is expected to maintain absolute integrity and devotion to duty and he is at all times bound to conduct himself in accordance with the specific or implied orders of Government regulating and conduct which may be in force.
( ii ) Suspension –
Suspension means the Suspension of official activities of a Railway servant. The Suspension is no a penalty. Railway servant shall be deemed to have been suspended by an order of competent authority in the following cases. The information to this effect should be conveyed to the employee on ( Standard Form No. 2 )
              i.     With effect from the date of his detention, if he is detained in custody whether on criminal charge or other wise for a period exceeding 48 hours.
             ii.     With effect from the date of his conviction if in the event of a conviction for an offence, he is sentenced to term of imprisonment exceeding 48 hours.
( iii ) Industrial dispute Act –
This act aims making provisions for the investigation & settlement of industrial disputes. This act extends to whole of the India. Salient features of this Act are –
Promotion of measures for securing amity and good relation between the employer and workman.
Investigation and settlement of industrial dispute.
Prevention of illegal strikes and lock outs.
Relief to work man in case of lay off retrenchment and closure. Collective Bargaining.
Railway is an industry but railway schools and Railway training schools are not covered under the provisions of Industrial dispute Act.
( iv ) Final Settlement on superannuation –
Final Settlement on superannuation to be done on basis of emoluments and average emoluments which have primary significance in determination of pension and retirement Gratuity. Gratuity is normally based on emoluments and pension is based on average emoluments.
Emoluments for the purpose of determination of pension / Gratuities include only basic pay.
Average emoluments is the average of the emoluments drawn during the last ten months of service.
Pension is determined on the basis of average emoluments. Gratuity is based on the emoluments drawn at the time of retirement.
Full pension is admissible to an employee who retires after completing qualifying service of not less than thirty three years and the amount of pension is determined at 50% of the average emoluments.        
( v ) Productivity linked bonus-
The grant of productivity-linked bonus is intended to provide substantial motivation towards achieving higher productivity by way of increased out put by the employees and improved quality of service.
The productivity shall be determined on the basis of revenue traffic tone kilometers achieved each year, derived from thee audited and financial year 1977-78 has been adopted as base year for this purpose.
The scheme is applicable to –
a)    All Railway employees other than Railway protection force.
b)    Casual Labour having temporary status and substitutes with not less than 120 days continuous service.
c)    Daily rated casual labour employed of projects having completed continuous service of 180 days.
P.L.B. shall be payable to all class III & IV staff.
( vi ) PNM Permanent Negotiating Machinery -
Two Federation of Union All Indian Railway men’s federation (AIRF) & National Federation of Indian Railway (NFIR) men have been recognized by Ministry of Railways. All the Railway units of the unions affiliated to these Federations have also been given recognition.   
With a view to maintain contact with the labour to resolve disputes & differences between labour & management & to maintain healthy industrial relations the Railway Board have set up Machinery to have a periodical dialogue with both the recognized Federations which is called PNM.
The machinery functions in three tiers as under: -
     The Railway Level or Zonal Level :-
At this level meeting between the recognized unions and administration are held     at Divisional level/ workshop level and zonal level. The cases which are not decided at Divl. / workshop level are referred at zonal level. PNM meetings with each recognized union at Divl. Level is held once in two months, while at Head quarters level it is held once in a quarter.
      The Railway Board level :-
Matters connected with the revision of pay & allowances and other policy matters for bettering service conditions. Which are not decided at zonal level are taken up by the Federation for discussion at Board’s level in this forum. PNM meeting at Board’s level is held once in a quarter.
      The Tribunal level :-
Cases in which agreement is not reached between the Federation and the Railway Board and the matters are of sufficient importance are referred to an adhoc Railway Tribunal composed of representatives from the Railway Administration and Labour presided over by a neutral chairman.
( vii ) Communal Roster –
To give proper effect to the reservation prescribed every appointing authority should treat vacancies as reserved or unreserved according to a modal roster each of 40 or 100 points as described bellows –
  1. Direct recruitment made on all India basis the posts, scale of which go beyond Rs 425/- 40 point roster.
  2. Direct recruitment to class III and class IV posts scale of which do not go beyond Rs. 425/- 100 point roster.
  3. For all posts filled by promotion to which reservation apply 40 point roster.
Roster have to be maintained separately for –
  1. Permanent appointments and appointments likely to become permanent or continuous indefinitely.
  2. Temporary appointment in each grade or post or group separately for leave vacancies for 45 days or more.
  3. Adhoc promotion pending selection / suitability test etc for 45 days or more.
The points which are specified as reserved points for these communities in a 40 point roster are as under-     SC :- 1, 8, 14,  22,  28,   36,  ……..        ST :- 4, 17, 31, ….
Q.7.- Write short notes on any Six of the following -                      
    i.    Cumulative frequency diagrams for curve Realignment.
   ii.    Distressing of LWRs / CWR.      
  iii.    Pre-temping & Post-temping operations.
  iv.    Guard Rails & Check Rails.              
   v.    Rocker & Roller Bearings.    
  vi.    Camber in Triangulated Girders.                                      
 vii.    Launching aprons.
viii.    Arbitration.
  ix.    Septic Tank & Acqua Privy.
   x.    Chlorination of Water.
( I ) Cumulative frequency diagrams for curve Realignment –
For Group A and B routs the need for curve realignment should be decided by drawing cumulative frequency diagram  showing versine variation over theoretical versine. For Group A and B routs the versine variations as measured on 20 meter chord shall be limited to 4 mm and 5 mm respectively. Realignment should be taken up when the cumulative percentage of versines lying within these limits is less than 80.
( ii ) Distressing in LWR / CWR –
Distressing is the operation under taken with or with out rail tensors to secure stress free condition in the LWR at a desired rail temperature.
Distressing is done at the temperature Td or near to td if td temperature does not exist. Before actual start of Distressing alternate filling are removed with speed restriction of 30 KmPH.
( iii ) Tamping and Post-tamping operations-
 Pre Tamping Operations-
i) Layout including spacing of sleepers as per relevant drawings shall be ensured.
ii) The nose of the crossing may get battered or worn or the sleepers below it may get warped or bent. In such cases, the crossing should be reconditioned or replaced and sleepers below the crossing should be attended.
iii) High points on the turn out and approaches should be determined and general lift should be decided. General lift of minimum 10 mm must be given.
Post Tamping Operations-
The Section Engineer (P. Way) shall pay attention to the following items:-
i) Checking and Tightening of loose fittings.
ii) Replacement of broken fittings.
iii) The ballast shall be dressed neatly. Proper consolidation of ballast between the sleeper shall be done.
iv) Final track parameters should be recorded with the help of recorders provided in the tamping machine.
(v) The fixtures like check rails removed during pre-tamping operation should be restored.
( iv ) Guard Rails & Check Rails.-
Guard Rails -                     
Guard rail should be provided on all girder bridges (including prestressed Concrete girder bridges without deck slab) whether major or minor. Guard rails should also be provided on all major and important ballasted bridges and also on such other minor bridges where derailment may cause serious damages. On all flat top, arch and prestressed concrete girder bridges with deck slab, where guard rails are not provided the whole width of the bridge between the parapet walls shall be filled with ballast up to the top of sleeper level.
Check Rail –
Check Rails are basically provided on sharp curves to reduce the lateral wear on the outer rail. They also prevent the outer wheel flange from mounting on the rail and this decrease the chances of derailment of the  vehicles. Check Rail wear out quite fast but as these are normally worn rails unfit for main line tracks further wear of checkrails is not considered objectionable.
As per present stipulations check rails are provided on the inside of the inner rails on curves sharper than 80 on BG and 140 on MG. Minimum clearance prescribed for check rail is 44 mm for BG and 41mm for MG.
Check rail also provided either on points & crossing and level crossing having the sharpness of a degree for safety.
The minimum & maximum clearance between the running rail & Check rail for BG provided as under-

1. – On Points & Crossing.
48 mm.
2. – On Curve.
48 mm.
3. – On Level Crossing.
57 mm.
51 mm.
( v ) Rocker & Roller Bearings -
In this type of the bearing at the fixed end the girder end is fixed in apposition but rocking due to deflection under load is permitted by the curved knuckle pin. At the free end the arrangement for rocking is similar but the knuckle assembly is mounted on a set of roller to take liner expansion. It has to be ensured during inspections that the knuckle pin and the rollers are well lubricated.
( vi ) Camber in Triangulated Girders –
Camber in Triangulated Girders should be provided at the time of fabrication. Length of all member of truss are to be fabricated to camber lengths as indicated in camber sheet of fabrication drawing with the group of connection holes of main gussets which are drilled on nominal layout. For this purpose, hole drilling jig is to be manufactured for each member with the distance between the group of end holes altered by the amount of camber allowance i.e. difference between nominal length and camber length. Bottom chords camber length are same as nominal length to facilitate the fabrication of stringer.
Track structure over the stringers or top chord is provided with same thickness of sleeper throughout the length of span hence track will have the same camber profile of truss during unloaded state.
( viii )Arbitration -    
Referring of dispute for determination in a judicial manner by a person or persons other than in court of jurisdiction.
The matter can only be referred to the arbitration if there is provision in the contract agreement and disputes are settled as per Arbitration Act.
Contractor is supposed to submit his claims from time. On receipt of claims from the contractor pre arbitration meeting is held between Sr DEN / DEN, Sr DAO / DAO and the contractor to thrash out the claims. If there is any dispute the matter is referred to DRM. DRM will discuss the issue with all the three in a meeting and communicate his decision. If contractor is not satisfied he may apply to GM. In such cases counter statement is prepared by the Sr DEN / DEN it is vetted by Sr DAO / DAO and sent to head office with papers of pre arbitration meeting. If the value of claim is within 5 Lakhs one arbitrator is appointed, If the value is more than 5 Lakhs or  complicated nature two arbitrators are appointed. GM is declaring panel of three or more officers not connected with the case. Contractor is selecting one person and other is appointed by GM ensuring that one is from accounts department.
( ix ) Septic Tank & Acqua Privy –
Septic Tank
Septic tank system is on a site disposal method which uses standard flushing. The septic tank acts as sedimentation cum digestion tank, Anaerobic digestion of the settled sludge occurs in its bottom zone and the supernatant liquid has to under go treatment in a soak pit / filter bed. Use of septic tank with out follow up treatment is not permitted, as the effluent from the septic tank is hazardous from the point of view of health and pollution, since it is usually not possible to provide sock pit / filter bed in built up urban areas, Septic tank system would not be appropriate in such areas.
Septic tank shall be air tight, the light and oxygen should be totally excluded. In order to create favorable atmosphere for anaerobic bacteria to develop the lighter part of the suspended matter in sewage floats on water colleted scum, the scum should not be disturbed for this purpose t out let and in let are provided. Scum board also may be provided at times to prevent scum being disturbed. Velocity of the sewage is reduced by allowing water to pass through opening at the bottom. The detention period of sewage is 10 to 12 hours.
Aqua Privy Latrine –
There are a sort of latrines also called septic tank latrines. These are constructed over septic tanks & flushing is also provided. The excreta together with flush water falls into the septic tank where it under goes anaerobic decomposition. The effluent flows to filters and then to soak pits. These tanks are designed for a capacity of 70 Liter / head / day and for a population even up to several thousands. A raw of water closets may be constructed over single septic tank. A grit chamber is necessarily provided at the inlet end of the septic tank which detains hard solid masses of faces which would other wise pass undigested at the other end . the grit chamber is made by erecting a wall at 1/6th the length of tank from in let side. This wall has an opening at the bottom so that excreta pieces are held on the surface in grit chamber till they are decomposed and digested while the main flow passes down through the opening at the bottom.
( x ) Chlorination –
The process of applying small quantities of chlorine   or chlorine compounds to water is called chlorination.
The form in which Chlorine can be applied may be any one of the following –
1. Bleaching powder 2. Hypochlorities   3. Chloramines   4. Chlorine dioxide    5. Liquid chlorine 6. Chlorine gas.
Chlorination should be done generally using chlorine Gas or other similar methods by Engineering department. At other places chlorination has to be done by mixing good quality bleaching powder solution at a particular rate with raw water in the pumping main at the pump house it self or at the high level storage Tanks by the IOW. 
Q.8.- ( a ) What are ( I ) Grade Compensation,  ( ii ) Cant Deficiency,  ( iii ) Cant Excess in respect of curves?                                           
         ( b ) Calculate the Equilibrium Cant , maximum permissible speed and length of transition curve for a 3 degree  in BG with the following data -     
                    Maximum sectional speed                        - 110 km/h.
                    Speed for determining Equilibrium Cant   -  80 km/h.
                    Booked speeds for goods trains                -  50 km/h.
                    Permitted cant deficiency                          -  100 mm.
                    Permitted cant excess                               -  75  mm.                
Ans.-  ( a ) ( i ) Curve Compensation / Grade Compensation on curve -  
The ruling gradient is required to be compensated on curves to offset the extra resistance due to curvature. The curve resistance depends upon a number of variable factors but for simplicity reasons it is taken as a percentage per degree of curve. Compensation for curvature allowed on Indian Railways is as follows –
BG  -  0.04% per degree of curvature.
MG  -  0.03% per degree of curvature.
NG  -  0.02% per degree of curvature.
( ii ) Cant Deficency –
Cant Deficency occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed higher than the equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the theoretical cant required for such higher speed and actual cant provided.
( iii ) Cant excess –
Cant excess occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed lower than equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the actual cant and the theoretical cant required for such lower speed.
Ans.-  ( b )
                                 GV2      1750 x 802
Equilibrium cant = --------  =  ---------------  =  146.98 mm.
                                   127 R     127 x 600
                                                            1750 x 1102
Cant for maximum sectional speed = -----------------  = 277.88 mm.
                                                              127 x 600
Cant deficiency for maximum sectional speed = 277.88 - 146.98 = 130.90 mm.
which is more than the permitted cant deficiency of 100 mm. With 100 mm. Cd,
actual cant = 277.88 - 100 = 177.88 mm. But actual cant is to be limited to 165 mm.
Cant excess: Cant for a speed of 50 kmph. which is the booked speed of a goods train (assumed).
                                         1750 x 502
                                        ---------------   = 57.41 mm.
                                          127 x 600
Cant excess = 165 - 57.41 = 107.59 mm. which is in excess of 75 mm. permitted value.
Provide actual cant = 57.41+ 75 =132.41, say 130 mm.
Maximum permissible speed Vm = 0.27 Ö R(Ca+Cd)
= 0.27 Ö  600(130+100)
= 100.3 or 100 kmph
Length of transition -
(a) L = 0.008 x Ca x Vm = 0.008 x 130 x 100 = 104 M.
(b) L = 0.008 x Cd x Vm = 0.008 x 100 X 100 = 80 M
(c) L = 0.72 Ca = 0.72 x 130 = 93.6 M.
The maximum value obtained is 104 M.
Ans. – ( I )  Equilibrium cant  = 146.98 mm.
            ( ii ) Actual cant that can be provided on this curve = 177.88 mm. But actual cant is to be limited to 165 mm.
            ( iii ) Maximum permissible speed on this curve = 100 kmph.
            ( iv ) Length of the transition curve = 104 m.
Q.9.- ( a ) What are the schedules of inspection of an AEN in-charge of an open line sub-division?                                                                               
         ( b ) What are the various items to be checked while inspecting manned Level crossing gate across a motor able road?
                                          1 : 12 Turnout                                                     
Ans.- ( a ) The important inspection to be carried out by Assistant Engineer are summarized below –
Works side –
1. Inspection of building and structures - Systematically inspect all buildings and structures periodically, One fifth every year on a Programme basis , 10% to 20% test check inspection of structures under each group, He shall record brief details of repair works to be carried out and plan to carry out the same.
He should also examine the Petty Repairs Book maintained by Section Engineer (Works) at stations.
2. Inspection Of Water Supply - The Assistant Engineer shall inspect water supply installations.  He shall ensure cleaning of overhead/underground storage tanks and proper disinfection of drinking water supply.
3. Inspection of Sewerage and Drainage System – Periodically inspect sewerage and drainage systems and its  efficient performance.
4. Inspection of Railway affecting works/ Railway affecting tanks (RAW/RAT) - Assistant Engineer shall jointly inspect with civil authorities, all RAW/RAT before the monsoons every year and arrange for their safe maintenance to avoid any danger to nearby tracks and structures.  Records of these annual inspections should be kept in registers as prescribed.
5. Land & Land Boundaries - Periodically inspect land and land boundaries in his jurisdiction.               
6. Private Siding – Inspect Private sidings maintained by private parties once in six month.
7.The Assistant Engineer should associate himself with various Committees and Groups such as the Colony Committee, the Sanitation Committee and the Station Improvement Group  as decided  by the Administration and take prompt action for items pertaining to his jurisdiction.
Schedule of Inspection Of Assistant Engineer ( as per C. E. circular No. 153 )
Schedule of Inspection in connection with maintenance of station and important Service building and structures as per C. E. Circular No. 153 are as under –
Category of building to be inspected
1.Staff Quarters- ( a ) Staff quarters at wayside stations .
                            ( b ) Staff quarters in major colonies.
2.Other important Structures and Service buildings- ( A ) Station buildings  ( i ) Station with waiting rooms & refreshment rooms. Way side stations.
( ii ) Junction and important Stations.
( B ) Important Service Building – ( i ) Rest house/ Retiring room.
( ii ) Running room.
( iii ) Cabins.
( iv ) Dispensaries.
( v ) Hospitals.
( vi ) Administrative offices.
( vii ) All sheds ( Loco, Goods , IRS type cover over.
( viii ) Roads, Platforms surface.
( ix ) FOB, ROB, RUB.
3.Water Supply – ( a ) High Service tanks & Under ground tanks.
( b ) Filter Plants and Chlorination plants.
( c ) open well and tube wells.
( d ) Reservoirs Dams Infiltration galleries.
4.Drainage –( a ) Under ground drainage system.
( b ) Oxidation ponds. ( c ) Septic tanks. ( d ) Manholes. ( e ) Aqua type chambers.
5.Gardening – ( a ) Lawn –
                        ( b ) Nursery.
6.Land – ( a ) Verification of land boundary in station yard ( where IOW is Stationed )
( b ) Checking encroachments.
( c ) Licensing of land .  ( d ) Shops.
7.Stores.- Departmental verification of stores.
Once in 2 years.
Once in a years.

Half Yearly
Half Yearly
Half Yearly
Half Yearly
3 Years
Once a year.
10 Nos. in 2 years.
Once in 6 months
Once in 2 years.

Once in 3 years
P. Way side
1. Inspection of Permanent Way The important inspections to be carried out by the Assistant Engineer are summarised below :
(1) Trolly Inspection – The entire sub-division should be inspected by trolly once a month.
(2) Fast Train Inspection – The entire subdivision should be covered by Engine (foot plate)  once in a month.
(3) Inspection of Level Crossings – He should inspect all the manned level crossings once in six months.
(4) Checking of curves – The Assistant Engineer shall check at least one curve in each P. W. I.’s jurisdiction every quarter by verifying its versine and super-elevation.
(5) Checking of Points and Crossings – He shall inspect once a year all points and crossings on passenger lines and 10 percent of the points and crossings on other lines.
(6) Monsoon Patrolling – When Monsoon Patrolling is introduced he should check the work of Patrolman at night once in a month.
(7) Track on Bridges – The track on Girder Bridges should be inspected as a part of the annual Bridge inspection.
(8) Scrutiny of Registers during Inspection– He should scrutinise the registers maintained by P W I, such as Creep register, Curve register, Points and Crossing register, SEJ and Buffer rail register, Gap Survey register and Section register.
(9) Inspections of L W R / C W R Track – The Assistant Engineer shall inspect the SEJs/Buffer                         rails provided in the L W R / C W R track once in every six months.
Ans.- ( b ) Important items to be inspected during level Crossing inspection -
  1. Examination of Gate equipment and Gateman in Rules.
  2. Obstruction of view.
  3. Condition of sleepers and fittings, rails and fastenings inspected at least once a year or more frequently.
  4. The painting of gates and discs.
  5. Whistle boards and 'STOP' boards provided on the approaches to level crossings.
  6. The Assistant Engineer should inspect the equipment at every manned level crossing on the sub-division every six months, and examine the Gateman in rules during his inspection.
  7. The Assistant Engineer should scrutinise the manuscript register of level crossing maintained by the Permanent Way Inspectors and inspect as many level crossings as possible, when they are completely opened out during the year.
  8. Visibility Requirements for unmanned Level Crossings.
  9. Provision of speed breakers on the approaches of level crossing.
  10. Appointment of Gatemen , Rosters and Medical fitness Certificates.-
  11. Gate Lamps and Blinders.
Ans.- ( b ) Inspection of 1 in 12 Turn out-
After laying in track, the resurfaced points and crossing shall be inspected quarterly in order to record the amount of wear on the nose, left wing and right wing rail as well as stock and tongue rail and also for the structural soundness, presence of disintegration or any other defects. Wear shall be recorded in crossing at ten different locations marked (A1, A3, B1, B3, C1, C2, C3, D1, D2 & D3)  and in tongue rails at seven different locations starting from one at toe to places each 100 mm away towards heel side and up to 600 mm from the toe.
The following aspect of these points & crossings should be regularly checked and recorded in a register –
Maximum misalignment on 7.5 m chord any where on the run through lie from the stock rail joint to the backing of the crossing. Misalignment defect beyond 3 mm are to be attended to within 3 days of inspection. Cross level at 15 cm from the nose of crossing defects beyond 4 mm are to be attended to immediately.
Wear at the nose of the crossing on high speed route of BG wear should not exceed 4 mm.
Q.10.- ( a ) Draw the Plan & Elevation of 3 x 6 m Slab Bridge with open foundations in alluvial showing the floor and bank protection works . Assume suitable levels with reference to bed of channel having square & stable flow.   
            ( b ) Describe in brief annual inspection of major and minor bridges.   
Q.11.- ( a ) What soil investigations are required to be done for designing the foundation of major bridge.                                                                                         
           ( b ) Raker & under Reamed Piles.                                                                   
           ( c ) Cube Tests & Slump Tests for prestressed concrete girder designed Mix.
           ( d ) Anti corrosion care of reinforcement bars in concrete work in saline environment.
Ans.- ( a ) Geo-technical investigations to get the soil particulars as necessary, for the design of foundations. For the satisfactory design and construction of piles, detailed soil   exploration to a depth generally not less than 10 metres below the   anticipated level of pile tip (unless bed rock or firm strata has been  encountered earlier) should be carried out and the following particulars  are collected.
a) Ground water table and its tidal and seasonal fluctuations;
b) Soil profile and bore hole log;
c) In-situ bulk and dry density ;
d) Index properties of soil ;
e) Shear properties of soil.  If required Standard Penetration Test (SPT) may be done;
f) Consolidation properties, in case of clays ;
g) Chemical analysis of soil and ground water to identify sulphate  and chloride content or any other deleterious chemical content.
Additional data such as high flood level, maximum scour depth , normal water level during working season, etc.  should also be collected.
( b ) Raker & under Reamed Piles -
Under Reamed Piles –
Under Reamed Piles mainly used in shrinkable soils ( black cotton soils ) to over come the effect of differential settlement due to volumetric change in soil effected by seasonal variations. It can also be used for sandy and clayey soils. These are three type –
        i.Single under reamed piles.
       ii.Double under reamed piles.
     iii.Multiple under reamed piles.
The diameter of under reamed bulb is normally 2.5 times the pile diameter and spacing of bulb should not exceed 1.5 times of the bulb. The minimum diameter of piles should be 20 cm. The top most bulb should be at minimum depth of two times of the bulb diameter. Minimum spacing of piles should be two times the bulb diameter.
( c ) Cube Tests & Slump Tests –
Cube Tests -
Cube Tests to be done for determine desired compressive strength of concrete. Sample consisting of six cubes 15 x 15 x 15 cm shall be taken for every 20 cum or part thereof of concrete work ignoring any part less than 5 cum or as often as considered necessary by the Engineer in charge. A register of cubes shall be maintained at the site of work. Cube tests to be done 7 days test and 28 days test.
Slump Tests –
Slump Tests to be done for determine desired workability of concrete. The workability of concrete can be measured by Slump Test.
Slump test is commonly adopted for ordinary concrete works. This test is performed with the help of a vessel of the shape of the frustum of a cone and open at both ends. The top and bottom diameters of the vessel should be 100 mm and 200 mm respectively and it should be 300 mm in height.
The vessel is placed in a flat non-absorbent surface and then filled with specimen concrete mix in four different layers of equal thickness. Each layer is tamped 25 times by the point of a 16 mm dia rod, 60 cm. In length. The strokes are applied uniformly over the entire area with a force that the rod just penetrates the full depth of the layer being compacted . Immediately after the vessel is completely filled, it is raised vertically, care being taken not to disturb the filling. The concrete filling is allowed to subside or settle. The vertical settlement recorded for concrete is known as slump.
The slump test gives satisfactory results for concrete mix of medium to high workability. It however, dose not give correct indication for concrete of low workability (suitable for compaction by vibration) which may give zero slump.
( d ) Anti corrosion care of reinforcement bars in concrete work in saline environment –
Anti corrosion care of reinforcement bars should be done by Cement polymer compost coating system. This system consists application of one coat rapid setting primer followed by a coat of cement polymer sealing product. The primer and sealing products have thermoplastic acrylic resin as basic raw material. Sealing product is formulated with resin mixed with cement as pigments.
 The coating is applied to the cleaned surface as soon as after cleaning and before oxidation of the surface. A rapid setting primer shall be applied over the prepared surface of the reinforcing steel either by brushing or dipping. After 30 minutes of application of the primer a cement polymer sealing coat shall be applied either by brushing or dipping. The coated rods shall be handled after 6 hours.
Q.12.- ( a ) Suggest a scheme for replacing of existing early steel plate girders of 10 x 18.2 m. span by new MBG welded girders received at site on a single branch line non electrified section Daily / weekly. Blocks of required duration can be arranged on this section and adequate width is available on abutments and piers for temporary arrangements and all spans are having flowing water.                                    
           ( b ) Suggest the painting scheme for these new plate girders.                      
Q.13.- ( a ) How will you fix danger level for a major bridge?                                    
           ( b ) A Distressed 1 x 3 m arch bridge is to be replaced by 1 x 6 m PSC slab bridge by using temporary girder arrangement for constructing the sub-structure and launching PSC slab in position. Assume suitable height of bank and other dimensions. Channel remains dry during working season. Draw a detailed dimensioned sketch of temporary arrangement.                                                                                 
Q.14.- ( a ) Draw a typical reinforcement diagram ( cross section ) of one way continuous roof ( 5 x 6 m span ) Slab simply supported on brick walls.                                         
           ( b ) Draw Bending moment and Shear force diagram for a simply supported beam of 6 m span having over hange of 2 m on either side ( 2 + 6 + 2 ) with a UDL of 500 kg per meter.                                                                                                      
( a ) Typical reinforcement diagram ( cross section ) of one way continuous roof ( 5 x 6 m span ) Slab simply supported on brick walls-

( b ) Taking moment about A -  
RB x 6 = ( 500 x 8 x 8/2 ) – ( 500 x 2 x 2/2 ) = 16000 –1000 = 15000 kg.  
      RB = 15000 / 6 = 2500 Kg.                    
RA = ( 500 x 10 ) – 2500 = 5000 – 2500 = 2500 Kg.        

Shear Force –

The shear force diagram is drawn in fig. And values are Tabulated hear
FD = 0,                 FC = 0,                 FB = - ( 2 x 500 ) + 2500 = - 1000 + 2500 = 1500 kg.          
FA = 1500 – ( 6 x 500 ) + 2500 = 1000 kg.                                     

Bending Moment

The Bending Moment Diagram is drawn in fig. And the values are tabulated hear
MD = 0 ,    MC = 0 ,   MB =  - 500 x 2 x 2/2 = - 1000 kg.m.    MA = - 500 x 2 x 2/2 = 1000 kg.m.
Maximum Bending Moment – At center
MM = - ( 500 x 5 x 5 / 2 ) + ( 2500 x 3 ) = - 6250 + 7500 = 1250 kg.m.                                           

Q.15.- ( a ) What are the latest track tamping machines available with central Railway for tamping of main line and turnouts? Describe in brief the salient features of these two machines.                                                                                                
             ( b ) Describe the formation of track Relaying train. Mention  the operations involved in relaying of a single line 52 Kg. MBC sleeper track by 60 Kg. on MBC sleepers.
Ans.- Various types of Track Tamping  machines –
Following Track Tamping  machines, which are in use on Indian Railways at present are as under-
 (i) Plain Track Tamping Machines
( a )  06-16 Universal Tamping machine (UT).  ( b )  08-16 Unomatic.  ( c )  08-32 Duomatic.
( d )  09-32 Continuous Action Tamping Machine (CSM).  ( e )  09-3x Tamping Express
(ii) Points and Crossing Tamping Machines – ( a )  08-275 Unimat. ( b )  08-275-3S Unimat
(iii) Multi-purpose Tamper (MPT) - Dynamic Track Stabilizer (DTS)

Q.16.- ( a ) What details are to be covered in Reconnaissance Engineering – cum – Traffic Survey for a new line project and what is meant by rate of Return and economic rate of return in railway projects.                                                                                
            ( b ) What provisions under section 3 of official language Act? What rules for corresponding for ‘B’ reason to ‘A’ reason ?      
Ans.- ( b ) Provisions under section 3 of official language Act -                                             
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Rules for corresponding for ‘B’ reason to ‘A’ reason –
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Q.7.- Write short notes on any Six of the following –
( v ) Private siding.                      
Q.2.- Describe in brief the format in which a detailed Estimate of construction covering all activities will have to be arranged ( without quantities ) for –
                  A Road Over Bridge for PWD on Deposit term basis.
                  Railway siding for a cement Plant on deposit term basis
Q.4.- ( a ) What is the procedure for creation of additional posts for additional assets?      
         ( b ) How Group ‘D’ vacancies are filled up these days on Railways?         
Q.5.-  ( b ) Give steps up a staff for loss of stores on account of neglect of duty.  
Q.7.- Write short notes on any Six of the following -         
( vii ) Launching aprons.
Q.10.- ( a ) Draw the Plan & Elevation of 3 x 6 m Slab Bridge with open foundations in alluvial showing the floor and bank protection works . Assume suitable levels with reference to bed of channel having square & stable flow.   
            ( b ) Describe in brief annual inspection of major and minor bridges.   
Q.11.-  ( b ) Raker & under Reamed Piles.                                                                   
Q.12.- ( a ) Suggest a scheme for replacing of existing early steel plate girders of 10 x 18.2 m. span by new MBG welded girders received at site on a single branch line non electrified section Daily / weekly. Blocks of required duration can be arranged on this section and adequate width is available on abutments and piers for temporary arrangements and all spans are having flowing water.                                    
           ( b ) Suggest the painting scheme for these new plate girders.                      
Q.13.- ( a ) How will you fix danger level for a major bridge?                                    
           ( b ) A Distressed 1 x 3 m arch bridge is to be replaced by 1 x 6 m PSC slab bridge by using temporary girder arrangement for constructing the sub-structure and launching PSC slab in position. Assume suitable height of bank and other dimensions. Channel remains dry during working season. Draw a detailed dimensioned sketch of temporary arrangement.                                                                                 
Q.15.- ( b ) Describe the formation of track Relaying train. Mention  the operations involved in relaying of a single line 52 Kg. MBC sleeper track by 60 Kg. on MBC sleepers.
Q.16.- ( a ) What details are to be covered in Reconnaissance Engineering – cum – Traffic Survey for a new line project and what is meant by rate of Return and economic rate of return in railway projects.