L.G.S. EXAMINATION – CIVIL ENGINEERING - Date : 23.04.2011
Attempt any six questions of the ten listed below. All questions carry equal four marks. One mark kept for neatness. ( 6 x 4 = 24 marks )
Q. 1. - Why is earnest money taken ?
Ans. - Earnest money –
The Tenderer shall be required to deposit Earnest money with the tender for the due performance with the stipulation to keep the offer open till such date as specified in the tender. Earnest money should be either in cash, deposit receipts, pay orders, demand draft.
The earnest money shall be 2% of estimated tender value. The earnest money shall be rounded to the nearest Rs. 10/- . Earnest money shall be applicable for all modes of tendering
Q. 2. - When is supplementary estimate prepared?
Ans. - Supplementary estimate –
Supplementary estimate should be prepared for any item of work, which ought to have been included in the first instance in an estimate already sanctioned but has not been so included, or which it is found later, should be considered as being a part or a phase of an estimate already prepared and sanctioned if it cannot be met out of contingencies. Such a supplementary estimate should be prepared in the same form and the same degree of detail as the main estimate and for all purposes be treated as a part of the main estimate.
Q. 3. - What is Operating ratio?
Ans.- Operating Ratio –
Operating Ratio is the ratio which the total working expenses excluding suspense of a Railway bear to its gross earning or in other words represents the percentage of working expenses in this connection include appropriation to DRF and Pension fund as well. This is used to measure the efficiency of the railway.
Q. 4.- What do you understand by departmental charges as defined in
1137 of engineering code?
Ans.- Departmental charges.—
When work is undertaken by the Engineering Department of a railway for outside parties including other railways, government department, public bodies and employees of the railway, departmental charges should be levied to never the cost of tools and plant and of establishment supervision. The charges livable will be 12½ percent on the total cost of the work including the cost of land, except where a rate higher than 12½ percent is charged to governmental departments on a reciprocal basis. The charge will be levied once only on the total outlay on a work and will not be in addition to a first charge of 12½ per cent on the value of stores.
Q. 5. - Indicate the procedure to sanction office building costing 42 Lakhs.
What are the various stages for processing the proposals for inclusion in works programme?
Ans - Various stages of processing the proposal for works programme as follows :-
As per Engineering code Railways are required to submit every year to Railway Board their preliminary works programme (in 15 copies) of works chargeable to Capital, D.R.F., D.F., and O.L.W.R. so as to reach the Railway Board not later than the 7th September of the preceding that to which they relate. These programmes are built up as a continuous process from the District/Divisional office level upwards.
A project should ordinarily commence at District/ Divisional Officer level. The District/ Divisional officer of all persons controlling the Department is in a position to state what works are needed and the reasons therefore. When he is satisfied about the need for a project, he obtains a rough estimate for the work from the Divisional/ District Engineer. At this state no detailed information is required and the estimate is required to be accurate enough to indicate the classification of the work e.g. New Minor Works. If in his opinion the work is essential or justified, he submits the case to the H.O.D.
That officer in turn, if he considers the project necessary and sound, prepares a detailed justification and sends the proposal to the FA&CAO. The FA&CAO then examines the project and returns the case with his comments to the H.O.D. either accepting, rejecting or questioning the justification.
If the project is accepted by the FA & CAO, the H.O.D. then forwards the case to the Chief Engineer or whichever authority consolidates and compiles the programme. The programme is then considered for finalization by the G.M.
The departments work up schemes in this manner and maintain registers of projects justified, accepted and forwarded. Railway Administration takes proper care to see that the cost of each work is worked out as accurate as possible and only those works/projects which have reached maturity or which have been approved by the Railway Board are included in the programme.
Major works, like doubling of lines, rebuilding of big major bridges important yard remodeling and all works estimated to cost more than Rs. 30 lakhs, are not included in the programme unless these have been previously approved by the Railway Board. The proposals for all such works with full technical and financial justification together with the FA & CAO’s remarks are submitted to the Railway Board when they get ready and well in advance of the programme.
Each new work included in the programme should be supported by a brief explanation to be furnished below the work showing the necessity and urgency for the work and the essential features of the scheme. The financial implications of all new works costing more than Rs. 10 lakhs each, duly vetted by the FA & CAO is noted below the justification for each item. Fresh justification is given in case of work which although included in some previous year programme have been kept in abeyance and are proposed to be restored.
The programme before submission to the Railway Board is examined by the FA & CAO and his comments on each work are shown under the justification for each item.
Final Works Programme – The programme of individual railways are examined by the Railway Board and discussed with the General Managers. The Railway Board thereafter decide the works which should be undertaken during the following year and Railway Administration then modify their works programmes as a result of the Board’s decision and send their final programmes to the Railway Board.
Thus the works programme is given its final shape.
Q.6. - What are the consequences to after termination of contract.
Ans.- Consequences to after termination of contract –
( i ) Revival of the contract within 48 hours – The contract is alive till the notice of termination is issued. As such there is no need of its revival during this period. Notice may be withdrawn if the contractor is able to demonstrate his earnest intention to restart the work.
( ii ) Revival of the contract after expiry of 48 hours and issue of termination notice – Once the formal notice of termination has been issued revival of the contract, if on the same terms and conditions, is possible only as a single tender and would require the observance of all relevant orders relating to such tenders.
( iii ) Loss on account of failure to observe provisions for enforcement of risk action – The defaulting contractor has to be given an opportunity for participating in a risk and cost tender in order to enable him to mitigate his losses keeping in view the spirit of natural justice.
Tender Committee to consider all aspects of the case such as the contractor’s capacity, credentials, financial status and changes in the relevant circumstances which might have taken place intervening period of award / termination of the earlier contract and opening of risk and cost tender.
It is specified that no work or supply should be entrusted for execution to a contractor whose capacity, credential and financial status have been investigated before hand and found satisfactory.
Q. 7. - What do you understand by primary unit of expenditure?
Ans. – Primary unit of expenditure -
The primary units are an important and integral part of the classification of expenditure as they serve to analyse the expenditures by the elements of cost viz wages / stores / other expenditure etc. A few examples of classification using the code of primary units of expenditure. The code 27 representing PU-27 ( Primary unit 27 ) ‘’ Cost of material from stocks. And the code 28 representing PU-28 ( Primary unit 28 ) ‘’ Cost of material direct purchase.
Q. 8. - State the difference between stock and non stock item?
Ans.- Stock item –
Stock items are those items which have regular turnover and required in day to day working frequently and at least 2 times in a year. As regards the procurement of stock items, the demand is sent by consignee and the items are recognized by P.L. number.
Non stock item –
Non stock item are those items which do not have regular turn over, not required frequently. These items are planned by the user department. The requirement with complete specification, detailed description of items is submitted to their concerned stores depts. on requisition form No. S – 3102.
As the procurement of items always take some time, advanced planning should be done to procure particularly costly items.
Q. 9. - What is the importance of Pink book in railway working.
Ans.- Importance of Pink Book :-
This shows the various sub heads under which the lum sum amount sanctioned by allotment is to be spent and this indicates the works for which the allotment of money is intended. These books are furnished to the Railways along with budget orders.
The Pink Books also show in the case of work costing over one lack each , total estimated cost of each work and railway administration are required to exercise control over expenditure not only against the allotment sanctioned for the year for each work but also against its total estimated cost as shown in Pink Book for works costing less than one lack rupees each a lum sum is allotted to each Railway administrations in Pink Book.
Q. 10. - What is the object of including arbitration clause in contract?
Ans.- Object of including arbitration clause in contract :-
In the event of any dispute or difference between the parties here to as to the construction or operation of this contract, or the respective rights and liabilities of the parties on any matter in question, dispute or difference on any account or as to the withholding by the Railway of any certificate to which the Contractor may claim to be entitled to, or if the Railway fails to make a decision within 120 days, then and in any such case, but except in any of the 'excepted matters' referred to in clause 63 of these conditions, the .Contractor, after 120 days but within 180 days of his presenting his final claim on disputed matters, shall demand in writing that then dispute or difference be referred to arbitration.
The demand for arbitration shall specify the matters which are in question or subject of the dispute or difference as also the amount of claim item-wise.
The arbitration proceedings shall be assumed to have commenced from the day a written and valid demand for arbitration is received by the railway.
Part “ B “
Write short notes on any six. All questions carry equal four marks. One mark kept for neatness.
( 6 x 4 = 24 marks )
Q. 1. - Write short notes -
1. Compassionate Appointment
2. Overtime Allowance
3. Commutation of pension
4. Filling posts of Artisans
Advance House Building
6. Major Penalties
7. Vacancy Bank
8. Voluntary Retirement
9. Staff Benefit Fund
10. Night Duty Allowance
1. Compassionate Appointment –
An employee’s son / daughter / near relative may be appointed on compassionate grounds in relaxation of the recruitment rules to a group ‘D’ or Group ‘C’ post.
When an employee dies in service / extension of service but not during re-employment , leaving his family in immediate need of assistance, when there is no other earning member in the family.
Exception – In exceptional circumstances with the prior approval of the secretary of the ministry department concerned , the appointment on compassionate grounds of a son / daughter / near relative of a Government servant who dies in harness will be considered even when there is an earning member in the family of the deceased government servant.
When an employee is invalided before attaining the age of 55 years ( 57 years in case of group ‘D’ ) if the department is satisfied that the condition of the family is indigent and is in great distress.
This concession is admissible only to one dependant.
2. Over Time Allowance –
Under the HOER the earning of over time depends on the extra amount of work performed between the rostered hours and statutory limits or beyond the statutory limits on the basis of either daily or weekly or two weekly periods as may be prescribed for different categories.
The staff has to work over time when it is necessary due to accidents emergencies, clerical staff are not entitled for over time.
Over time is paid at one and half times of the wages per hour of duty if the employee has worked between the rostered limit and statutory limit and twice the ordinary wages per hour of duty if the employee has worked beyond the statutory limit.
3. Commutation of Pension –
Every pensioner is eligible to commute a portion of his monthly pension ( excluding personal pension ) for a lump sum payment i.e. commuted value of pension. An employee or pensioner against whom department or judicial proceedings are pending is however not eligible to commute a portion of his pension till completion of such proceedings.
Amount admissible for commutation not exceeding 40% of monthly pension. Admissible on minimum amount of pension of Rs. 1275.
4. Filling posts of Artisans -
Artisans are those who are skilled in a trade. The posts in Artisans categories are filled by direct recruitment and or by promotions to staff working in a trade in lower posts. 50% of the vacancies in skilled grade will be filled by promoting basic tradesmen and semi skilled staff provided the latter attain the standard prescribed in the relevant trade tests.
The remaining vacancies of 50% will be filled by direct recruitment method. 25% of these will be filled by selection from course completed Act Apprentices. ITI passed candidates and Matriculates from open market who will be given training to bring them up to the standard of earlier trade apprentices. The remaining 25% will be filled in from serving staff with educational qualifications as laid down in the apprentices Act who will be given a appropriate training before absorption in the skilled grade.
Advance - House Building
Grant of House Building Advance (HBA) is regulated in the terms of rules and regulations laid down from time to time by the Ministry of Urban Development for Central Government employees in general. The instructions apply to railway employees as it is –
i. All permanent Railway employees.
ii. All other temporary railway employees than 10 years service.
iii. Members of all India Services deputed for services who are on deputation on railways for more than 06 years.
iv. When Both husband and wife are railway employees and both are eligible for grant of advance the advance will be admissible to only one of them.
v. When both husband and wife are employee then cost ceiling limit pay of both husband and wife will be taken into account.
vi. Suspended railway employees are also eligible for advance on witness of two collateral security.
6. Major Penalties :-
1) Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for a specified period ( NC / C ).
2) Reduction to lower time scale of Pay, grade, post or service with or without further directions regarding conditions of restoration to the grade or post or service from which the railway servant was reduced and his seniority and pay on such restoration.
3) Compulsory retirement.
4) Removal from service.
5) Dismissal from service.
7. Vacancy Bank –
For dealing with matching surrenders, a vacancy bank shall be operated at divisional & head Quarter level and Board level also.
For the purpose of working out the monetary value of the posts being surrendered only the mean pay of pay band plus corresponding grade pay & dearness allowances as on the date of creation / surrender of the posts should be taken in to account.
This account is credited with 75% money value of the surplus posts surrendered as a result of initiative and work study undertaken by the division for locating pockets of surplus. 25% of money value of such post shall be credited to head quarter Vacancy bank.
25% of the money value of all posts surrendered in the Zonal railways such as Division, Workshops and extra Divisional units be transferred to Railway Board for crediting to the Railway Board Vacancy Bank.
8. Voluntary Retirement -
An employee has the right to retire and get pensionary benefits by giving three months notice to the appointing authority. As per new Voluntary Retirement Scheme Safety Related Retirement Scheme was introduced in January 2004 exclusively for two frontline safety categories i.e. Drivers and Gangmen.
The ward of the employee seeking retirement under the scheme is considered for appointment in the respective category subject to fulfillment of eligibility / suitability etc. The existing scheme has been renamed as Liberalized Active Retirement Scheme for Guaranteed Employment for Safety Staff and will cover all safety categories including Gangman with grade pay of Rs. 1800/-. The condition of having minimum 33 years qualifying service has been reduced to minimum 20 years and the eligibility age group from 55-57 years to 50-57 years.
9. Staff Benefit Fund -
This is a fund intended to afford certain kinds of amenities and benefits to non gazetted staff as well as to gazetted officers of the Railway over and the normal facilities offered by the Railway administration from out of Railway funds direct. This is managed by a committee in which the chairman is an officer not below the rank of a Deputy need of a department nominated by the General Manager one representative elected from the staff.
10. Night duty allowance –
All Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ staff classified as intensive, continuous and essentially intermittent under the Hours of Employment Regulations, Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ workshop staff, and supervisory staff and sisters in charge working on regular shift duty and Group ‘C’ staff, working in confidential capacity will get weightage at the rate of 10 minutes for every hour of night duty between 22 to 06 hours and shall be paid Night duty allowance for such weightage at the rates prescribed.
Attempt any ten questions. All questions carry equal ten marks.
Q.No. 1 - Draw a hand sketch showing position of engineering indicators in case of multi speed restrictions (Speed increasing in direction of train)
Ans. - Multi Speed Restriction (i.e. existence of two or more than two speed restrictions in continuation) :-
When work of deep screening or sleeper renewal is in progress, there is situation of having two or more than two speed restrictions in continuation. In such situation, placement of speed boards for following speed restriction shall be as under:
i. In case of following speed restriction being more restrictive, a minimum of 200m track should be under earlier speed restriction zone. If not, then only one SR board should be provided, considering that the previous speed restriction is at par with the following SR, which is more restrictive.
ii. In case of following speed restriction being less restrictive, corresponding speed indicator board for following speed restriction shall be placed at a distance equal to the length of the longest goods train operating on the section after termination point of previous speed restriction zone.
The details and position of fixing each indicator are detailed in Figure as under.
Position of Engineering Indicators in case of Multi speed restriction in case Ist speed restriction is (say 20 kmph ) lower in comparison to the 2nd speed restriction ( say 45 kmph ) on one of the line of a double line section in the direction of train movement in a BG section .
Position of Engineering Indicators in case of multi speed Restrictions
[ Case – I : S2 < S1 ]
Q.2. - What are important points to be kept in mind to maintain switches in good condition?
Ans.- Important points to be kept in mind to maintain switches in good condition –
i. Manual Maintenance :- Covers rectification of clearances, gauge, level & alignment; tightening of fittings; packing.
ii. Machine Maintenance :- By UNIMAT tampers. Alignment, levelling and packing is done. Machine packing is essential for concrete sleeper layouts.
iii. Reconditioning :- Switches and crossings are reconditioned if the wear comes close to permissible limits.
iv. Ensure efficient drainage.
v. Ensure adequate ballast cushion.
vi. Ensure correct spacing of sleepers.
vii. No junction fish plate at SRJ and HOC. At least one rail should be of the same section.
viii. Spherical washers are used on skew side. In I.R.S. turnouts with straight switches, these should be provided on the left hand side invariably in the switch assembly.
ix. Burred stock rail should be replaced.
x. Creep anchors and box anchoring of one rail length ahead of stock rail.
xi. Desirable to weld SRJ and lead curve joints.
xii. Lubrication of gauge face of tongue rail.
xiii. ST sleepers – Wooden blocks under crossing in case of ST sleepers.
xiv. Gauge Tie Plate should be used on wooden layouts under switch and crossing.
xv. Tongue rail should bear evenly on all the slide chairs.
xvi. No change of cant outside ATS and HOX for a distance of 20 m on BG and 15 m on MG.
xvii. In case of straight switches, correct amount of bend should be given to the stock rail on the turnout side at the theoretical toe of switch.
xviii. Tongue rail should bear evenly on all the side chair. When the tongue rail is in closed portion, it must bear evenly against distance studs or blocks.
xix. Insertion or removal of P & C in a running line affecting layout must be carried out only after obtaining sanction of CRS.
xx. Avoid - Gap at toe, Loose packing and loose bolts in switch, Tight gauge at nose of crossing, Loose bolts in crossing assembly.
xxi. If only wing rails are replaced, the difference in the level of nose of Xing and wing rail to be as per original assembly
xxii. On Toes where one road is used predominantly, the wear on Stock Rail should be closely monitored and attended.
xxiii. Grind gauge face of stock rail if burr is there.
xxiv. Maintain P & C with zero missing fittings.
xxv. In case of bad housing, replace that pair of Stock Rail & Tongue Rail if not able to rectify.
xxvi. Cleaning and Lubrication of Points :- At all interlocked and partially interlocked stations the signal staff will be responsible for the periodical cleaning and lubrication of those slide chairs in which signaling and interlocking gears are connected generally up to 3rd sleeper from toe of switch in all points interlocked with signals or provided with locks.
Q.3. - What precautions are to be taken during deep screening by BCM, followed by tamping machine & DTS?
Ans. - Precaution to be taken during deep screening of track by BCM followed by TTM and DTS machines are as under -
( i ) All precautions laid down in LWR manual ( specially those in para no. 6.3.2 ) shall be strictly followed.
( ii ) Hard Sal wood blocks of size 600 x 300 x 300 mm ( six numbers ) duly end bounded shall be arranged for supporting ends of three adjoining sleepers where cutter bar is left in the track and remains untamped.
( iii ) Sleepers of cutter bar area shall be manually packed and ballast under cutter bar location sleepers shall be removed only half an hour before the expected traffic block. Adequate care shall be taken to ensure that wooden blocks are not dislodged before arrival of BCM at site.
( iv ) Fish plated joint shall not be located in cutter bar location.
( v ) Ramp shall not be located in locations like level crossing, girder bridge, transition portion of curve etc. It shall be kept minimum two rail length away.
( vi ) In case of fracture or cut in CWR / LWR, a speed restriction of 20 Kmph shall be imposed till it is repaired as per para 7.2.3 of LWR Manual.
( vii ) In case of malfunctioning of TTM and or DTS, deep screening shall be stopped and track which has not been tamped and stabilized shall be attended manually by ballast ramming and correction of track geometry to ensure safety of running trains. Speed restriction shall be imposed and relaxed in term of IRPWM para 238 ( 2 ) ( g ) ( i ) or ( ii ) which ever is the case.
( viii ) In case of non availability of traffic block on subsequent days of deep screening by BCM speed restriction shall be imposed and relaxed in term of IRPWM para 238 ( 2 ) ( g ) ( i ) or ( ii ) which ever is the case.
( ix ) When BRM is not deployed, adequate track men shall be deputed to recoup ballast, particularly in shoulder and maintain ballast profile after machine working.
( x ) Lifting of track shall be resorted after ensuring adequate availability of ballast for maintaining ballast profile for planned lifting.
( xi ) Adequate arrangements for supply and training out of ballast prior to deep screening should be made. Special care shall be taken by deploying watchman on stretches overdue for rail renewal.
Q.4.- a) What is the difference between insulated joint and glued insulated joint? ( 5 marks )
b) What is the purpose of providing structure bonds in electrified section? ( 5 marks )
Ans.- ( a ) Difference between insulated joint and glued insulated joint –
Insulated joints –
Track circuited sections are ‘insulated’ electrically from the track on either side by insulated joints. The standard insulated joint in normal use, is made out of ordinary fish-plates duly planed on the fishing planes for accommodating channel type insulation between rails and fish-plates with ferrules/ bushes over the fish bolts and end posts between the rail ends.
Glued insulated joint –
Glued insulated joint have been developed using resin adhesives. These joints consists of web filling fish plats glued to the rails with a high polymer adhesive and bolted with high tensile steel bolts. The insulation is provided by special type of insulating side channels, bushes and end posts made of fiberglass cloth rovings.
Ans.- ( b ) Purpose of providing structure bonds in electrified section –
Structure Bonds :– All structures supporting overhead equipment either in A.C or D.C. track circuited areas are connected to the running rails for ensuring good earthing. Failure of insulator or leakage of current switches off the supply from the sub-station so that men coming in contact with supporting structure etc. do not get electric shock. Removal or tampering of such bonds can, therefore, result in unsafe conditions. Since the structures are grouted in concrete, they are likely to become charged in case such bonds are kept disconnected. Similarly other steel structures such as foot-over bridges, sheds, etc., in the vicinity of O.H.E. lines are also connected to rails through similar structure bonds.
Q.5. - Indicate the difference between any four- 4 X 2.5 = 10 marks.
a) Relaxation of speed by manual & machine packing.
b) Nominal mix and design mix of concrete
c) IMR & OBS defects
d) Bracings & Stiffeners ( Related to girder bridges)
e) Switch Expansion joint & Buffer rails
f) Interlocked & non interlocked gates.
Ans. 5. a) Difference between Relaxation of speed by manual & machine packing -
Relaxation of speed With Manual Packing –
The details of the work to be carried out in stages on various days, after the starting of the screening operation and the speed restriction are as under and sectional speed can be resorted on the 21st day.
Details of work
Day of work
Deep screening and their initial packing –
First through packing –
Second through packing –
Picking up slacks as required –
Third through packing –
4 to 9
Picking up slacks as required –
Fourth through packing –
11 To 19
21 on wards
Normal Sectional speed
Relaxation of speed With machine packing –
The details of work to be carried out in stages on various days after the start of the screening operations and the speed restriction are as under and sectional speed can be resumed on the tenth day.
Details of work
Day of work
Deep screening with initial packing –
First machine packing –
Picking up slacks as required –
Second through packing –
3 To 5
Picking up slacks as required –
Third through packing –
7 to 8
10 on wards
Normal Sectional speed
( b ) Difference between Nominal mix and design mix of concrete -
Nominal mix –
When the proportion of cement, aggregate and water are adopted based on arbitrary standard the concrete produced is termed as nominal mix concrete.
Nominal mix concrete is used in works where the quality control requirement for design mixes are difficult to be implemented. Nominal mix concrete can generally be produced by taking cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate in the ratio 1 : n : 2n for normal work. However the ratio of the course aggregate to fine aggregate can very from 1½:1 to 2½ : 1 depending upon whether denser or more workable concrete is to be produced.
Design mix –
The mix shall be designed to produce the grade of concrete having the required workability and characteristic strength not less than the appropriate value. The tar gate mean strength of concrete mix should be equal to the characteristic strength plus 1.65 times the standard deviation.
The objective of concrete mix design is to produce a concrete of desired compressive strength with adequate workability. Design of concrete mix involves determine of the proportions of cement , water, course and fine aggregates.
( c ) Difference between IMR & OBS defects-
Depending on the nature and extent of internal flaws, traffic density and speed on the section, the defects have been classified into three major categories i.e. IMR, REM and OBS.
i. Transverse crack – Flaw at more than one location separated by less than 4 m or within 1 m. of fish plated joint.
ii. Horizontal longitudinal 1 238 defect accompanied with transverse defect. - In any length
iii. Vertical longitudinal split. In any length
Action required to be taken - Immediate replacement (not later than 3 days). The fractured portion should be replaced by a sound tested rail piece of not less than 6 m length within 3 days of detection.
Speed restriction - Impose 30 km/h and depute a watchman till defective part replaced.
Marking of defects in the field : - Painting on both faces of web - Red - 3 stars
i. Transverse crack – At one location but not on IMR/ REM category. ( OBS (FP)
ii. At one location or more locations ( OBS )
iii. Vertical longitudinal split. - In any length.
Action required to be taken –
i. For OBS (E) - Replace or end crop within 15 days
ii. For OBS ( B ) - Replace within 15 days
iii. For Other OBS - PWI should observe with a magnifying glass each OBS location and duly record his observation once a month, to see if the crack has developed further in which case action as for REM defects should be taken. PWI should maintain sleeper, fittings and ballast at such locations in sound condition. AEN should also test-check some of the OBS locations and record his observations during his monthly push trolley inspection of each section.
Speed restriction - Impose 30 km/h if not replaced within 15 days.
Marking of defects in the field : - Painting on both faces of web - Red - 1 stars
( d ) Difference between Bracings & Stiffeners ( Related to girder bridges) –
All inclined web members between Bottom chord & Top Chord at either end and intermediate in
are called Bracings. And these
are also called
diagonal members. It is a compression member and heaviest member of girder
bridge truss. Bracings at either end of the truss are also called end Rakers. Bottom lateral bracings are connected with hanger plates to bottom flanges of rail bearers to
transfer the longitudinal forces to bottom chords panel points. Top
lateral bracings are provided in each
panel and diagonally connected to top chords with top lateral gusset plates to
resist wind force as well as for lateral rigidity. Girder Bridge
All Vertical standing web members between Bottom chord & Top Chord are called Stiffeners. And these are also called Vertical member.
( e ) Difference between Switch Expansion joint & Buffer rails -
Switch & Expansion Joint ( SEJ ) –
Switch Expansion, Joint (SEJ) is an expansion joint installed at each end of LWR/CWR to permit expansion/contraction of the adjoining breathing lengths due to temperature variations.
The exact location of SEJ shall be fixed taking into account the location of various obligatory paints such as level crossings, girder bridges, points and crossings gradients, curves and insulated joints. SEJ with straight tongue and stock shall not be located on curves sharper than 0.5 degree (3500 m radius) as far as possible. SEJ shall not be located on transition of curves.
Buffer Rails -
Buffer Rails are, a set of rails provided in lieu of SEJ at the ends of LWR/CWR to allow expansion / contraction of adjoining breathing lengths due to temperature variations. These will be laid with prior approval of Chief Engineer at locations where provision of SEJ is not permitted. Buffer rails may also be temporarily laid to facilitate maintenance/renewal operations.
( f ) Interlocked & non interlocked gates –
Non interlocked gates -
Non-interlocked gate not provided with telephone and gate signals. Non-interlocked gates provided with telephonic communication with Station / Cabin.
Interlocked gates –
Interlocked Level Crossing gate provided with telephone and gate signals. The normal position of gate generally is open to road traffic. The Station Master shall advise the Gateman of the passage of train on the telephone, before permitting a train to enter into the block section.
6. Indicate in brief essential components of a water treatment plant to treat water from a river source. Purpose of each should also be given. (No sketches needed)
7. हिंदी का कार्यसाधक ज्ञान प्राप्त करने की क्या शर्तें हैं?
8. Indicate scheme & precautions for executing work of constructing new foot over bridge in electrified section. ( no sketches needed)
Q. 9.- Indicate procedure & measures for obtaining best results from design mode tamping.
Ans. - Design mode operation of Track Machines –
In Design Mode precise track geometry data must be known before work commences. Correct track geometry data should be input at the front tower as even small error will have a cumulative effects on the slews produced by the machine.
a) Curved Track
Versine survey of the curve is to be carried out, then slews are worked out and made available to the operator for feeding to the front tower.
b) Transition position
The correct location of transition and its location in relation to run up or down is essential. The actual sleeper at the start and end of the transition should be indicated to the operator. With this information, the length of transition can be ascertained and the tabulated values applied to the control of the machine at the front tower.
c) Straight Track
There is a possibility of a long straight track being made up of a series of smaller zig-zag straight lengths. Therefore, the theodolite should be used to establish straight line along the length of track to be corrected.
Levelling in Design Mode -
Levels of a track section are recorded by using levelling instrument. Final level along with gradients and vertical curves are decided. The required lifts are finally recorded on every alternate sleeper. Levelling is carried out by entering the lift values at the front tower.
By adopting design mode of levelling and lining desired track geometry can be achieved.
Q.10. As an
you to plan a canal crossing bridge (
Box design ) for single line. Draw a labeled diagram for layout of temporary
diversion giving formula for calculating over all length. ADEN
Q. 11.- List out various members of a through type steel bridge. Explain working & maintenance of Rocker & Roller bearing. ( 6 + 4 = 10 marks )
Ans.- Various members of a through type steel bridge –
Bottom Chord & Top Chord - Compression member and made up of 2 nos. rolled or built up channels and top flange plates.
End Rakers – Inclined members at either end of the truss. It is a compression member and heaviest member of truss.
Diagonals – All intermediate inclined web member are called diagonal member.
Vertical Members – All Vertical standing web members are called Vertical member.
Members of floor system –
Cross Girder – Each panel point of bottom chords of both trusses are connected by cross beams called cross girder.
Rail bearers or stringers – Between two cross girder one set of built up I section like plate girder is provided called Rail bearers or stringers.
Secondary members – Secondary members are those which can be replaced by themselves individually as under –
Bottom lateral bracings – These bracings are connected with hanger plates to bottom flanges of rail bearers to transfer the longitudinal forces to bottom chords panel points.
Top lateral bracings – These are provided in each panel and diagonally connected to top chords with top lateral gusset plates to resist wind force as well as for lateral rigidity.
Sway bracings and knees sway – These are provided in webs of top chords at intermediate panel points for lateral rigidity.
Portal bracings and knees portal – Portal bracings connected at either end panel points partially to top chord and partially to end raker. Knee portal struts or frames are connected to end rakers.
Corner brackets – Corner brackets are connected to top flanges of cross girders at ends.
End stools and end brackets – End stools are provided to end panel point of bottom chords. End brackets are provided to end cross girders.
Main gussets – Main gussets are connecting members at every panel point of top and bottom chords.
Bearings – Bearing are connected with turned bolts between saddle plate and bottom chord at either end.
Working & maintenance of Rocker & Roller bearing -
All bearings should be generally cleaned and greased once in three years. The roller and rockers are lifted from their position (by adequate slinging). The bearings are scraped, polished with zero grade sand paper and grease graphite in sufficient quantity applied evenly over the bearings, rockers and rollers before the bearings are lowered. The knuckle pins of both the free and fixed and should also be greased. While lifting fixed ends, the space between girders (in case of piers), or between the girder and the ballast wall (in case of abutment) at the free ends should be jammed with wedges to prevent longitudinal movement of the girders.
Q. 12. - State in brief various quality control measures for executing earth work ( including blanketing layer )
Ans. - Various quality control measures for executing earth work –
To achieve effective performance of permanent assets created in New line / Doubling / Gauge Conversion projects, adequate quality control / checks at all stages of construction viz. selection of construction materials, adoption of method, use of suitable machinery for construction and during execution of work is essential. Following quality control system needs to be adopted during execution of earthwork.
A well-equipped GE Field Laboratory shall be set up at all construction projects.
a ) Aspects to be looked after by field GE lab are as under :-
i. To ensure that the quality of supplied soil and blanket material conforms to the accepted limits of gradation, classification, plasticity, etc.
ii. To evaluate method of compaction by conducting tests in connection with field trials.
iii. To exercise moisture and density control as the earthwork proceeds in layers rolled with the suitable equipment.
b ) Depending on the requirement, field lab shall be equipped with minimum equipments to facilitate the following minimum tests :-
i. Gradation Analysis-Sieve and Hydrometer.
ii. Atterberg’s limits - liquid limit & plastic limit
iii. Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and Relative Density.
iv. Placement moisture content & in-situ Density.
Quality Check of Earthwork - Quality of execution of formation earthwork shall be controlled through exercise of checks on the borrow material, blanket material, compaction process, drainage system and longitudinal & cross sectional profiles of the embankment.
Quality Control on Construction Material - This is required to ascertain the suitability of the material for construction of embankment and to decide the OMC and MDD, which become the quality control inputs for compaction control. Control tests are required to be done for borrow material as well as blanket material.
Frequency of Testing at Site - At least one test at every change of soil strata subject to minimum of one test for every 5000 cum to assess suitability of fill material and to lay down OMC and MDD / Relative Density. Minimum one test per 500 cum or part there of for Blanket Material.
Density check would be done for every layer of compacted fill/blanket material as per following minimum frequency :
i. At least one density check for every 200 sq.m for blanket layers and top one metre of sub-grade.
ii. At least one density check for every 500 sq.m. for other than blanket and one metre of sub-grade.
In case of bridge approaches or special locations closer frequency may be adopted.
Acceptance Criteria :- Materials conforming to specification need only to be used for construction of embankment.
Blanket Material : - The source of blanket material needs to be identified based on tests & studies conducted and conformity of the material to the Specification. It would be desirable to have a check on quality of material at source / manufacturing point so that major deviation in quality of the material being sent to site does not exist.
Compacted Earth :- Degree of compaction of each layer of compacted soil should be ascertained by measurement of dry density / Relative Density of soil at locations selected in specified pattern. The method of sampling, frequency of tests, method of tests to be conducted and acceptance criteria to be adopted.
Q. 13. - Explain the precaution & procedure for replacing an old 1 : 12 turnout by new concrete sleeper layout using T – 28 Machine. ( In a busy electrified section ).
Ans.- Precaution & procedure for replacing an old 1 : 12 turnout by new concrete sleeper layout using T – 28 Machine.
Precaution & procedure & Operations for replacing an old 1 : 12 turnout by new concrete sleeper layout using T – 28 Machine are as under -
Pre-Block Operations -
i. New turnout should be assembled using Jib Crane near the site of turnout to be replaced.
ii. The assembled turnout should be loaded on trolleys for transportation.
iii. Rails on either side of existing turnout should be of the same section as that of new turnout.
iv. Deep screening of turnout portion should be done. Ensure required cushion and proper drainage.
v. Point machines should be disengaged and turnout should be non-interlocked before taking up its replacement.
vi. Ballast from crib and shoulder of sleepers should be removed up to sleeper bottom for full turnout length.
vii. 60 wooden blocks, each approximately 60 cm long, should be kept ready for facilitating passage of crawler on the obstacles.
viii. 4 nos. of rail pieces each 70 cm long should be kept ready for housing; below the rail wheels of the crane.
ix. Jumpering of both ends of the turnout should be done by electrical staff before lifting and removing of existing turnout.
x. Adequate arrangements should be made for protection of the line involved and adjacent lines while the machine is working.
xi. Fish bolts should be lubricated and worked to facilitate easy removal during block.
xii. Location where clamp of each crane will hold the crossing and switch portions for lifting
xiii. should be marked on the assembled turnout.
Operations During Block
i. Immediately after getting traffic block, the fish bolts of existing turnouts should be opened.
ii. Both cranes should be traversed and brought in position for handling the existing turnout at the demarcated position.
iii. Old turnout should be lifted by cranes and traversed to suitable location for further dismantling after the block.
iv. The crane should be traversed to the pre-assembled concrete sleeper turnout and both the cranes should be taken to demarcated position on turnout.
v. Simultaneously, the gangs should scarify the ballast from the location where the turnout has been removed.
vi. The ballast bed is lowered to accommodate extra height in case of concrete sleepers.
vii. The crawler side frame of the cranes should be spread suitably in stages to accommodate the length of the turnout sleepers on their demarcated locations for each crane.
viii. Pre-fabricated turnout should be held by the crane. The cranes with the turnout be traversed across in stages and brought to the location of laying. The turnout is laid in position and fish plates are bolted to the existing track.
ix. One crane is traversed on the track and the second is utilised for final alignment of turnout.
x. After placing the turnout, gangs should fill back the ballast manually.
Post Block Operations
i. Ballast deficiency should be made good by putting additional ballast. profiling and boxing of ballast should be done.
ii. The turnout should be tamped with the help of UNIMAT machine. Both alignment and levels should be corrected while tamping the turnout.
iii. The turnout may be interlocked and point machine engaged immediately after laying the turnout.
iv. Damage to the cess during block operation should be made good.
v. Provision of proper earthing points should be ensured by the Electrical staff.
Q.14.- Explain the technical aspects of any two of the following.
( a ) Transition curve and Cant Gradient. ( b ) Painting specification for steel bridges.
( c ) Abrasion Value & Impact Value of ballast sample. ( d ) Use of Rail tensors.
Ans. - ( a ) Transition curve and Cant Gradient –
Transition Curve –
In order to provide smooth entry to the curve, Transition Curves are provided on either side of a circular curve so that the centrifugal force is built up gradually by running out super elevation slowly at a uniform rate.
A transition curve is there fore an easement curve in which the degree of curvature and gain of super elevation are uniform through out its length starting from zero at the tangent point to the specified value at the circular curve.
Cant Gradient –
Cant gradient indicate the amount by which cant or deficiency of cant is increased or reduced in a given length of transition e.g., 1 in 1000 means that cant or deficiency of cant of 1mm. is gained or lost in every 1000mm. of transition length.
( b ) Painting specification for steel bridges -
i. Paints from approved manufacturers only should be used.
ii. Special care should be taken to shift sleepers on girders or rail bearers to clean the seating very thoroughly before applying the paint.
iii. Paint should be mixed in small quantities sufficient to be consumed within 1 hour in the case of red lead paint and 5 days in the case of red oxide paint.
iv. While painting with red oxide paint, a little quantity of lamp black shall be added to the paint while doing the first coat to distinguish it from the second coat. Similarly, in the case of aluminium paint a little blue paint can be added, instead of lamp Black for 1st coat.
v. Paints should be used within the prescribed shelf life from the date of manufacture.
vi. Brush shall not be less than 5cm in width and should have good flexible bristles.
vii. Dust settled after scraping shall be cleaned before applying paint.
viii. Rags, waste cotton, cloth or similar articles should not be used for applying paint.
ix. The coat of paint applied shall be such that the prescribed dry film thickness is achieved by actual trial for the particular brand of paint.
x. Each coat of paint shall be left to dry till it sufficiently hardens before the subsequent coat is applied.
( c ) Abrasion Value & Impact Value of ballast sample -
Abrasion Value of ballast sample -
The abrasion Value test for ballast sample shall be carried out using Los-Angeles machine.
Test sample of 10000gm shall consist of clean ballast conforming to the following grading :-
i. Passing 50mm and retained on 40 mm square mesh sieve 5,000 gm
ii. Passing 40 mm and retained on 25mm square mesh sieve 5,000 gm
tolerance of ± 2% permitted.
The sample shall be dried in oven at 100 - 110 °C to a constant weight and weighed ( Weight 'A' )
The test sample and the abrasive charge shall be placed in the Los-Angeles abrasion testing machine and the machine rotated at a speed of 20 - 33 revolutions / minute for 1000 revolutions. At the completion of test, the material shall be discharged and sieved through 1.70 mm IS sieve.
The material coarser than 1.70 mm IS sieve shall be washed, dried in oven at 100-110°C to a constant weight and weighed ( weight B ).
The proportion of loss between Weight "A" and Weight "B" of the test sample shall be expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the test sample. This value shall be reported as :- Aggregate Abrasion Value = [ ( A - B) / A ] X 100
Aggregate Abrasion Value = 30% Max. for BG, MG & NG ( planned/ sanctioned for conversion ) and relax able up to 35%.
Impact Value of ballast sample –
Impact Value test of ballast sample shall be carried out using impact testing machine.
The test sample shall be prepared out of track ballast so as to conform to following grading:
Passing 12.5mm IS sieve 100%
Retention 10mm IS sieve 100%
The sample shall be oven dried for 4 Hours at a temperature of 100 - 110°C and cooled.
The measure shall be filled about one-third full with the prepared aggregate and tamped with 25 strokes of the tamping rod. A further similar quantity of aggregate shall be added and a further tamping of 25 strokes given. The measure shall finally be filled to over flowing, tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregate struck off, using and tamping rod as a straight edge. The net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall be determined to the nearest gin. (weight 'A')
The cup of impact testing machine shall be fixed firmly in the position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test sample placed in it and compacted by 25 strokes of the tamping rod.
The hammer shall be raised 380mm above the upper surface of the aggregate in the cup and allowed to fall freely on to the aggregate. The test sample shall be subjected to a total of 15 such blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second.
The sample shall be removed and sieved through 2.36mm IS sieve. The fraction passing through shall be weighed. (Weight "B").
Aggregate Impact Value = B/A X 100
Aggregate Impact Value = 20% Max. for BG, MG & NG ( planned/ sanctioned for conversion ) and relax able up to 25%.
( d ) Use of Rail tensors -
For distressing and permanent repairs Indian Railway have procured a few Rail Tensors either of hydraulic type called hydro stressors or of mechanical type called mechanical rail tensor.
A hydro stressor consists essentially of a hydraulic pump which transmits its force through connecting vans to clamps which grips the rail. In case of mechanical tensor the force is exerted mechanically by longitudinal jacks by means of this force the rail can be pushed or pulled to a desired length. In case of pushing the force should not exceed 30 tons otherwise the track is likely to buckle on that account. The rail are however normally pulled only during the distressing operations. The rail tensor is capable of distressing a rail at any time when the rail temperature is less than distressing temperature.
Q. 15. Indicate the various stages involved in acquiring land for a new line project.
Ans.- Following procedure will be adopted for land acquisition.
Application :- Whenever land is required for Railway purposes an application should first be made direct to Revenue Officer In charge of District in which the land is situated for statement of value of land and a draft declaration for acquiring it. Application should set forth clearly the purpose for which land is required and should have the complete set of land plans prepared in accordance.
When the work of acquisition extends to more than one district lies within the one division application should be made to Commissioner when in more than one division to the Chief Revenue Authority of State.
For better identification of land in cases where the areas to be taken up are expensive, following details should be given to State Government:
i. Name of the Railway.
ii. Copy of Order of Government when necessary.
iii. Brief description of route to be followed by Railway.
iv. A list of Civil districts in which the land will be required for the purpose.
Revenue Officers’ estimate of cost of land :- On receipt of application from Railway Administration a responsible Revenue Officer will forward to Railway Administration a stateme4nt showing the nearest approximate cost of land also a draft declaration under section’6’ of Land Acquisition Act on which it should be recorded there is no objection to acquisition of land.
When the estimated value of land exceeds Rs 25,000 in any one district or one lack in any division, it is necessary that the data should be countersigned by the Commissioner in which land is situated or Chief Revenue Authority of State respectively.
Statement of data received from Revenue Authority should be taken as representing the value of land, exclusive of tenants rights but exclusive of value of houses, trees, standing crops etc on the land the approximate cost of which should be separately furnished by Revenue Authority.
With the information in land the Railway Administration should proceed to frame an estimate of total cost of acquisition in detail the additional 15% laid down in section 23 ( 2 ) of land Acquisition Act on market value of land under section 23 ( 1 ) Clause - 1 of that Act.
( a ) Value of Land :- ( I ) Waste ( ii ) Arable ( iii )
. ( iv ) Bazar Homestead
( b ) Value of :- ( I ) Masonry House. ( ii )Trees. ( iii ) Thatched House. ( iv ) Standing Crops.
Add additional 15% compensation under section 23 ( 2 ) on the market value of land including houses, trees and crops.
Add market value of Government land taken up.
Add damage under clauses 2 to 6 of Section 23 ( 1 )
Add capitalized value of land revenue (when necessary).
Add cost of establishment (when necessary)
Sanction to land Estimates :- General Manager or any other officer duly empowered to sanction the estimate will than accord sanction and allot necessary funds and forward the estimate duly signed Accounts Office together with the draft declaration and duly signed plans and schedules to the State Government for taking necessary steps for acquisition of land. If the sanction of Railway Board is necessary to estimated cost of land Railway Administration should apply for and obtain that sanction before applying to State Government for acquisition of land.
Work bona fide Railway Purpose :- As a general rule land may not be acquired except in connection with a duly sanction work but this rule does not debar the acquisition of land for bonafide Railway purposes.
In case of urgency Railway Administration are empowered to depart from ordinary rule stated in the previous paragraph and sanction the acquisition of land prior to preparation and sanction of estimate either for work or the land, provided the total probable cost of work is within the power of Railway Administration to sanction.